27 July 1864: “I wish I could give you some idea of what a noble girl she is – Her letters are not only my greatest pleasure (next to seeing her) but they are something more than a girls love-letters.”

Item Description:  Letter, dated 17 December 1863, from Benjamin Lewis Blackford to his mother, Mary Berkeley Minor Blackford.  The letter details packages received, his love life, and family news.Item Citation:  Letter dated 27 July 1864, in the Blackford Family Papers #1912, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Office of Chief Engineer, 3d Military District, Department No. Ca. and So. Va.
Wilmington, N.C. July 27, 1864
 
My dearest Mother
It is very discouraging to write now, for the mails are in so crazy a condition that the chances are [?] against a letter going through at all.  it is evident that up to the date of your letter by [?] you had not received mine – I am glad though to tell you that your letter containing the $20.00 reached me safely after being a month on the way.  I am very touched and grateful, my dear Mother, that you should spare me money out of your small resources, and I feel ashamed that it should not be the other way.  I manage to get along somehow, though my mess bill alone amounts to $250.00 per month and dos fare at that.  I get various little articles imported through the kindness of blockade-running friends, and sell half of them for enough to pay for the balance, and something over [?] Cousin Fanny Mitchell (Miss [?] that was) is going to Richmond today and I will get her to leave for you at Cousin Mary G’s a paper box containing two bleach veils, on for you and one for Mary – they are very nice I think and I hope they will suit you – Since you last heard from me my love affairs have not prospered so well (I mean with the old ones) and I have fought them hard – Mr. K. who has [?] of sense keep his mouth shut and is civil, barely, but is [?] opposed to the whole office and endeavors to show me by anything short of actual [?] that I am not welcome in his house.  Mrs. K. though, who is a coarse woman with an ingovernable temper is ​[?] to me [?] her house, but abuses me [?] and [?]for not abandoning the unit when I found it was not agreeable to them – Indeed two weeks ago we had reached the very verge of a runaway match.  Harshness and persecution had made  Sue ill and finally when her Mother made some patch wrok about she told her that she would stand anything but that and gave her to understand that a repetition of the offence woud bring about instantly just what she wished to avoid.  Matters have improved a little though [?].  Mr. Hepburn, the Presbyterian pastor has been consulted and has taken the matters in hand and has already poured much over it on the troubled waters and has had much talk with all parties – I have given him, he having been requested by the authorities to receive it, my “ultimatum” which is as follows – that I am to be allowed to meet her freely, when and where I please, to be regarded as her accepted invitation and that in consideration of such concessions I am not to urge a marriage till after the war or at all [?] till the parents shall consent to it.  On the other hand, if they continue as they have lately done, and endeavor to break off the whole thing by [?] force – I sent them word fairly that I would be married as soon as Sue came of age next November I have not yet heard the result of this, but hope to do so today – I don’t much care which way they decide; our minds are made up and Sue, though it has cost her many tears and an agony I never saw anyone else suffer has finally resolved that she has neither the right nor the power to sacrifice me even at the bidding of her parents – I wish I could give you some idea of what a noble girl she is – Her letters are not only my greatest pleasure (next to seeing her) but they are something more than a girls love-letters.  I wish you could see them, so full of good advice and wise suggestions, and I depend as completely upon her suggestions &c as I probably should do if she was really as she playfully signs herself sometimes my “little wife”.  In many respects she reminds me of you, especially in her earnestness of character – her integrity and independent individuality – It would gratify you to hear old people and children + servants speak of her. To most people of her own age and rank she is naturally haughty and reserved, but her manner to the old is so deferential and the attentions she pays them so flattering that they look upon her as a bright exception to the frivolities of the present generation usually called “young ladies.”  I could write many pages of truthful rapture about her, for my admiration grows as I watch her character under trying circumstances, but I forbear she  loves me, I believe as only she ever loved before – Not even in jest, [?] moment will she deny her love – If questions are asked by persons whom she believes to have no right, no one knows better how to freeze them on the spot.  Toa friend who asks her seriously she speaks of her engagement with great pride + dignity – Did Mary get the carte de visite of Sue I sent by John Payne?  I enclose a letter for Mary.  tell her to answer it at once.  She (Sue) has expressed constantly much sympathy for Mary in her recent troubles which I hope are well over now, by the way.  I am trying to do [?] for [?] to have him send to me.  I hope he will succeed – I have not heard from Eugene for a long time, nor indeed from any of the boys –Hope to come home on furlough before the summer months; my health has been very bad and I am thin to a degree.  Sue lives at the Sound now 8 miles off so I do a deal of riding – I have been offered $5000 for my mare – I think I must part from her.  Give my best love to sister Sue + Mary – Tell sister Sue that my Sue often inquires about her – your aff. Son 
 
B Lewis Blackford

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25 July 1864: “Jink said in his letter he was going to Richmond on a pleasure trip. They are very near it now and said all the Officers had been nearby and they wanted to get away from the Yanks a while.”

Item Description:  Letter dated 25 July 1864 from Eliza Murphy Walton to her son, John “Jock” Walton, Company F, 41st Regiment N.C. Troops (3rd Cavalry).25July18641 25July18642 25July18643 25July18644Item Citation:  Letter dated 25 July 1864, in the Thomas George Walton Papers #748, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Creek Side July 25
My dear Jock
 
The second letter from you since you left Petersburg was received the 10 day of May. We was so glad to hear you were well also one from Jink he is safe tho he does not mention his health. I suppose it is good he had not been so fortunate as you in his first accounts of the raid as he heard our place was destroyed. You have not received Mary’s letter written directly to you after your Aunt Louretta’s death. I hope you have before this as it gave you all the particulars. She seemed very gratified at you being so thoughtful of her and seeming so anxious about her. She was only rational at very short intervals for two days before she died. It was one of the saddest events of my life, only three sisters and one of them gone.
 
Eliza is at Mr Erwins & will spend the summer with them. She looks very badly. W. W. Avery died of the wounds he received two days after he made a will and left Alphonso his Esecutor, who is here now and intends on resigning. Uncle Molton did not make a will and his family are troubled about getting someone to attend to his business. Lizzie is in great distress. Mr Houke was also wounded in the raid very badly. I hope we will not sufferer again as there is a Reg and 2 companies of cavelry here now and your father is appointed Col of the Home Guard. The Reg is the adjoining counties. The Cavelry companies pursued a band of deserters and Yankees and captured 27 of them a couple days ago.
 
Your aunt Mary has been very sick with the measles her recovering was thought doubtful for a few days. Mr. Caldwell also has them badly. Maggie is still at home & will remain a week longer. Miss Lounders is with her. Ella Erwin will return with them. Frank Craig and Tom McEntire were here at the time of the raid and gave all the assistance in their power. Frank has been sick ever since. Dr. Pearson was wounded in the knee and will be a long time recovering. Old Chandler Foster of the one in Capt. P- Company was killed.
 
We have had a very long dry spell, our gardens and fields are all suffering for rain very much. We have had a splendid crops of black berries. I am glad to get milk and butter now. I know you enjoy it so much. Jink said in his letter he was going to Richmond on a pleasure trip. They are very near it now and said all the Officers had been nearby and they wanted to get away from the Yanks a while. Willie Avery’s wound is very painful and he is very much reduced in flesh. I did not think you had much to spare when you left home. How do you look? How are your boots holding out? I suppose you got a supply.
 
Lola and Mary are going to town and will send a letter to you and ink to put in the office. I hope you will soon be at some place where you can write regularly and get letters from home. Hugh and Herbert are as bad as every. They are out all the time in the sun. Do write again soon. I will make May write you soon before she leaves home.
 
Your devoted
mother E.M. Walton
 
Have your daugerotype taken before you write again.

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23 July 1864: “The doctors said it was a disease they had never met with before and it baffled all their skill.”

Item description:  Letter dated 23 July 1864, from Jock (William Hunt) to his brother Luke (Andrew Lucas Hunt).  This letter details news of death and illnesses at camp, activities at “Soldiers Rest,” a depot for wounded soldiers in Chicago, and family news.  Andrew Lucas Hunt (1843-1905) of Chicago, Ill., was an officer with the 134th Illinois Regiment, United States Army, during the Civil War.18640723_01 18640723_02Item citation: Letter dated 23 July 1864, in the Andrew Lucas Hunt Papers, #3225, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Chicago Saturday July 23/64
(In the Cashiers Desk)
 
 
Dear Brother Luke
 
Although this letter will not go till tomorrow I thought as I had a few spare minutes I would write you.  I am very sorry to have to tell you of the death of Mj David Mather.  He died last night about half past one after being sick for about a week + a half.  They had five or six doctors to see him,  It was a disease entirely unknown to them.  Father + Mother were called in there about eleven o’clock and staid there till he died.  The doctor showed father his side + leg and the were all covered with crimson spots about an inch in diameter and raised about the length of your finger nail from the skin  The doctors said it was a disease they had never met with before and it baffled all their skill.
 
I have been out rowing on the Baisin all this three or four times this week with Johnie Chapin last night we went out a great deal fa[r]ther than the light house  This evening I am going in swiming.  I have been in several times this year, but for the last week or two it has been too cold.  I suppose you have heard of the great drouth we have been having here.  There had been no rain for a long time.  But in the early part of this week it Rained almost incessantly.  It began to rain first on Saturday night.  Sunday morning about five o’clock it Rained so hard we could scarcely see across the road.  It washed all the streets as clean as could be.  It also rained a great deal on Monday and Tuesday.  All the time the wind blew very hard from the south north. 
 
I heard the other day that you had a full beard + mustach.  I think you had better let them grow especially your mustach.  When you get home you can confer with mother about letting them grow.  Mr. Loethwork brought up the things to us two days befor yesterday.  Mother went up to see Alfred Colburn the day after.  He was very much pleased to see her.  I went up yesterday and took up some cake and Black Currant Jam.  I had a very pleasant time with him.  I forgot to say Amy + Ettie went up with him me.  We talked about the boys, and he said you were with their Company much more than your own.  We talked about Harry Hubbard and he was very sorry to hear that he was not expected to live from one day to another, certainly not till you get home.  In the room where he (Colburn) lay were three others.  One had the diarreha and had not got from his bed for over a year.  Another had the consumption.  And another was very weak, could hardly stir.
 
Last night after I had a boat ride I went down to the Soldiers Rest for I heard there was a regiment coming in and I saw a wounded soldier having his wound dressed.  A ball had gone into his left shoulder and come out his elbow.  It was a very bad wound indeed.  I suppose you have heard that Ettie has had the measles.  This will make the second time she has had them.  Dr. Davis said it was very seldom a person had them twice.  She is entirely over them it now.  You have never said anything in your letter about being carried on a plank to Co. E’s quarters to dinner on the “Fourth”?  Were you not at the general dinner?
 
The next time you go out on a foraging expedition take Tom Burton along with you.  I think ou will find him a good man in case of any trouble.  I heard he had a position is this true?  I believe Co. A + B. Chi. Ligh Artillery are coming home today or tomorrow.
 
Your brother
Jock
 
P.S.  Answer all my letter as soon as possible

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22 July 1864: “Found old ‘Hill’ looking like the same, and a good many new faces to meet me.”

Item Description:  Diary entry dated 22 July 1864 describing Henry Armand London’s first day of his senior year at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  Henry Armand London of Pittsboro, N.C., was a journalist and lawyer who attended the University of North Carolina until 1864 when he joined the Confederate army. After the war, he returned to Pittsboro, where he was involved in many business ventures and in community activities. He served as UNC trustee from 1901-1917.22July1864Item Citation:  Diary entry dated 22 July 1864, in the Henry Armand London Papers #868-z, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

July 22nd 1864
 
Arose at 6 oclock after only four hours of sleep gave directions about starting.  Mr. Sutton eat breakfast with us and gave me a letter and a bundle to carry with me.  Started for the “Hill” about 8 oclock and after a ride of four hours reached there safely.  Found old “Hill” looking like the same, and a good many new faces to meet me.  Saw Tom Meares and he said he would move up tomorrow.  Engaged board at Miss Nancy Hilliard’s and took supper there.  Occupied my same old room and found everything safe.  Had a party at “Petersburg” but did not go, met Florence & Lila going there but did not speak to them.  Attended meeting of Society and only 9 members present, truly has the Dialectic Society degenerated.  Feeling tired and sleepy from my days work retired early and was not disturbed by the Sophs deviling as they did not “go around.”  Thus ended the first day of my senior year and how will my last be! 

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21 July 1864: “on my arrival here I found about 30 Reb scouts who left in a Hurry – on our approach.”

Item Description:  Letter dated 21 July 1864 written by William H. Powell to Brigadier General William W. Averell.  William H. Powell served as a colonel in the 2nd West Virginia Cavalry Regiment. He commanded a brigade of cavalry as part of General David Hunter’s campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in pursuit of Confederate general Jubal Early.  This letter gives an account of Confederate movements during the pursuit of General Early.21July1864Item Citation:  Letter dated 21 July 1864, in the William H. Powell Letters #5419-z, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Stephenburg W. Va. July 21/64
7:30 P.M.

Dear Genl

I have just arrived and sent out all the parties on the different roads as per your instructions. The balance are with me here. on my arrival here I found about 30 Reb scouts who left in a Hurry – on our approach. I can learn nothing definite as to the real force of the Enemy – I have I have heard that Genl Early’s main force has retreated towards Front Royal and that the force you trashed so effectually yesterday have gone to Strausburg. I will have something more definite on the return of the parties now out. I will keep wide awake tonight. You can rest easy. Will keep you advised during the night –

My command including artillery are out of Rations

Your Obdt serv

W.H. Powell
Col cvry Brig

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19 July 1864: “Very rough no drug suffered enormous”

Item description:  Diary entry dated 19 July 1864 of William Beavans, Company D, 43rd North Carolina, mortally wounded in a skirmish at Snicker’s Gap in the Shenandoah Valley on July 18, 1864. The diary breaks off in the middle of the entry for the 18th with the summons to battle – then resumes, in a scrawl, the following day. This is the final entry. Beavans died in Winchester on 31 July 1864, at the age of twenty-four.19July1864Item Citation:  Diary entry dated 19 July 1864, in the William Beavans Diary and Letters #3244-z, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

19
I went to Winchester as soon as my leg was amputated
Jack & George went with me
Very rough no drug suffered enormous
ladies very kind

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18 July 1864: “[...] I was glad to hear that you had recovered all your negroes except two. I hope it is two.”

Item description:  Letter dated 18 July 1864, from H.H. Burwell to his brother George W. Burwell.  This letter discusses planting corn crops, weather, and the recovery of enslaved negroes.  George W. Burwell was a physician, planter, and businessman of Mecklenburg County, Va.18640718_01 18640718_02Item citation:  Letter dated 18 July 1864, in the George W. Burwell Papers #4291, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Williamston N.C. July 18th 1864.

Dear Bro Geo
When Bro Bob left your house two weeks ago we expected by this time to have sent our waggons over with some provisions But as I was not done plowing my corn I went down yesterday to see Bob he thought it would make no difference with you to defer the trip one week in order that we might finish plowing our corn. I am running ten plows + hope to get through this week, Bob had a good rain last week which my land has not been wet for six weeks, my corn crop is impaired by the drought. I saw Armistead’s Boy Stephen yesterday was sorry to learn from him that he had sent you no horse. I asked Stephen if he was going to send you any provisions he did not know, I was glad to hear that you had recovered all your negroes except two. I hope it is two. I will try + come over when the waggon comes. My love to your family

Your Bro Very Truly etc.
H.H. Burwell

 

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17 July 1864:

Item description: Letter from Seraphina Brooks Flowers to Lt. G. C. Lockwood, 17 July 1864. Flowers writes Lockwood, a federal officer, to petition to see her son who was taken prisoner.

IMAGE

In DSHC – scans 62 and 63

http://dc.lib.unc.edu/u?/ead,151346
http://dc.lib.unc.edu/u?/ead,151384

 

Item citation: From folder 56 of the Craig, Ferris, and Flowers Family Papers #5323, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

[page 1]

The following letter, was addressed to a Federal

Officer, in Vicksburg, during the war between

the North and South.

Ceres, July 17th 1864

Lt. G. C. Lockwood,

Dear Sir

You will doubtless, be

very much surprised to receive a communication

from me; but the deep anxiety I am feeling at this

time, induces me to venture to address you with an

appeal, for the exercise of your influence in behalf

of my son, who is now a prisoner at Rock Island ___

captures on the 10th of June, by Gen. Sherman’s

forces near Rome, Georgia.

If you can, by your influence, in routing, or

otherwise, gain for him the extension of kind

 

[page 2]

and lenient treatment (as far as is consistent with

orders) from the Prison Officers, it will be esteemed

one of the greatest favors __ one that will give gladness

to my heart, which is surcharged with sadness

and gloom.

I fear you will consider me presuming

as I have appealed to you on former occasions;

and besides; I am fully aware that I have

no claims whatever, upon your kindness_

Still, however, I venture to apply, trusting that

the noble, kind, and generous nature, which I

believe you to possess, will induce you to excuse

in me any appearance of this kind.

My solicitude is very great as my son

is very young __of frail and delicate con__

stitution __ possessed of a most sensitive nature,

and very poorly prepared in mind and body

to encounter the hardships he may have to

encounter endure.

You know something of myself and relatives;

and we have through the kindness and consideration

which you have always manifested, become to

feel towards you as friends.

If you can, and will by penning a few words,

do that which may lighten the wearisome prison

hours of my son, it will call forth my lasting

gratitude, and kindest remembrances through life.

Yours Respectfully

S. Flowers

 

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15 July 1864: “You spoke in your last letter about trying to get a negro boy to be your servant and I think of trying to bring him up to Chicago with you. Now what would we do with him if we had him?”

Item description: Letter, dated 15 July 1864, from William Hunt to his brother Andrew Lucas Hunt.  Andrew Lucas Hunt (1843-1905) of Chicago, Ill., was an officer with the 134th Illinois Regiment, United States Army, during the Civil War. 18640714_0218640714_0318640714_04Item citation:  Letter dated 10 July 1864, in the Andrew Lucas Hunt Papers, #3225Southern Historical CollectionThe Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Friday 15th 12 o’clock.

You spoke in your last letter about trying to get a negro boy to be your servant and I think of trying to bring him up to Chicago with you. Now what would we do with him if we had him? Where would we have him sleep? If we could get over these difficulties, I would like it very much, only be sure he is smart, active and intelligent, smart & neat in his looks, and intelligent. If you can get one such as I describe you had better confer with mother about bringing him up here with you. I would like it very much.

A. Cooley & Bro have moved to their new place on Griswold St. and in addition to his pump factory he has a foundary and has been in the store looking at B.D. Hangers & Rollers & Track for a good pattern by which to make some. The flys are bothering me so much I can scarcely write.

When you come back, you will be supprised at the amount of buildings that have been put up since you have been away. A.R & G.H. Millar are to move into the new building on State St. just the other side of Fuller, Warren & Co.’s Store. I wish they had moved somewhere up Lake St. ’cause it doesn’t pay to have three retail hardware stores so near together. 

The “P.O. Alley” is “non est” (a latin word for played out) now. They have torn down or moved away all the old buildings which stood there, and have began to take away the dirt. I have not been able to learn what they are to build there.

John [] has the contract for the building of the “Chambers of Commerce,” I should say the carpenter work. He is to do it for $42,000xx. Father says he does not like to supply him with hardware for he is afraid he can not pay goods will be advancing so much, he has contracted too low.

We receive your letter just now 1 1/2 P.M. and I will answer what I can in answer to it. On looking it over I see nothing to answer but some things to write about and some questions to ask. Hamilton has taken your letter up to the house and I forgot what the date was, but it was the letter in which you spoke of a fight at Clinton between some New Jersey Soldiers & some Guerillas. How is it that you did not participate in it, or none of your men sent to help? I should think you would like to have a “brush” with them. I know I would. 

Be careful to have a sufficient guard with you when you go out foraging. Please tell me what you mean by going out of the lines, you do not go into Reble country for you are in country conquered form them!

Please tell me what you mean by “Police duty”. wether they men appointed to the situation or not &c, &c. Tell me also all about the “Court Martial”. what they did with the men &c, &c. You ought to take more of your “Bitters,” it would keep your stomache right.

If “Charlie Frank” is such a boy as I described, we wanted fetch him up here with you by all means, if you and Mother think best. I should think we could find some place for him to sleep. What is his age, size, &c., &c.? Tell me all about him, some of his sayings & doings.

I hope you will not be sent up here to guard the prisoners for then you will loose all chance to distinguish yourselves, and it is mean dirty life you would lead up there.

You spoke in your letter about your “Band”, and the instruments as having arrived. I didn’t know that when you went away you had a band with you, or at least the musicians? I didn’t see them. Are they to stay with you and play when you come home? I hope not for they cannot play as well as the Light Guard Band, and you ought to have the best when you return. Tell me all about them (the musicians).

Also tell me all about the “Fourth of July Dinner”. The toasts you drank lemonade to, &c. &c. What time you had it, where you had it and who presided over the ceremonies. How do you like the numbers 1.3.4 that were sent you? I bought the numbers at “Borvens” @ 5c ea., also the leaves [?]. I went to Larrabee’s & North first & they asked me 10c for them (the numbers).

You said that there was a door in the hillside which nobody “dost” open for fear it is an “infernal machine.” Why don’t they dig down from the top of the hill, or is this impossible & why?

Yesterday we received three letters from you. Father went to the P.O. after breakfast and got them and when he saw one, he did not look at the others, but went right home (as he always does, we are so glad to hear from you) and after hearing it read by mother, came down town, and then discovered he had two more. Hamilton and Clem have just come down so I will have to bid you “adieu” for the present, for I am hungry. 

(After Dinner)

I can’t think of anything more to say so I’ll go and see what the bulletin says.

Gold opened this morning 255 one o’clock 240 now 5 o’clock 240.

Rebels are retreating across the Potomac.

We are all well. Answer my letters soon answer all my questions in order, and ask some for me to answer.

Your affectionate Brother,
Will Jock

I was going to write you but I thought you would get this Sunday. We received the Reble money and paper on which were the names of the men found asleep. Tell me when you received the letter.

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14 July 1864: “Who would have thought then that he would never return.”

Item description:  Letter, dated 14 July 1864, from William Hunt to his brother Andrew Lucas Hunt. Andrew Lucas Hunt (1843-1905) of Chicago, Ill., was an officer with the 134th Illinois Regiment, United States Army, during the Civil War. 

18640714_01 18640714_02

Item citation:  Letter dated 10 July 1864, in the Andrew Lucas Hunt Papers, #3225Southern Historical CollectionThe Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Chicago July 14 /64 (Thursday)
5 1/2 o’clock. In the Cashiers Desk

Dear Brother Luke,

As there is very little doing in the store now (we were very busy this morning and afternoon). I thought I would write you a letter.

We were all very sorry to hear of Capt. Linn’s death. if I remember rightly he was the officer who had charge of the camp (Camp Fry) the night I came down with you, the first time you came down after you went up there, at least he looked at the “passes” of those who went out of the camp. Who would have thought then that he would never return.

We are having at present what might be called very pleasant weather neither too cold or too warm. In every one of your letters except the last you complain of the hot weather, something after this style. “7 1/2 o’clock A.M. Too hot to stir out of the tent.” Now if it is so hot at “seven” what must it be at “twelve”?

I have to stop writing now, for I have to “charge up the books” and then copy it into the “City Sales.” This is my business. I thought I would begin to write some more. The news here this afternoon is that it is “rumored” that Grant has occupied Petersburgh; Communication is open between Baltimore and Washington; and Trains (Cars) are running between the two last mentioned Cities; Gold has declined to 261/2, Gold was at one time 2.95. Father has some casks of Files lying down at the N.S.R.R. Depot “In Bond” which he does not pay for becaus gold is so high. Although he could have sold most of them by this time if he had paid for them. Mr. Thompson sold nearly $50xx worth yesterday while I was at dinner. The amount of files we are selling is astonishing. We are out of a good many sizes & styles.

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