28 February 1865: “SALISBURY* you’ve left behind you, and the dead line and stockade! You have suffered great privations–they can never be repaid!”

Item Description: A poem written by George G. B. DeWolfe, known as “The Wandering Poet of New Hampshire,” for Union soldiers recently paroled from the Confederate prison at Salisbury, North Carolina.

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Item Citation: DeWolfe, George G. B. “Lines for the paroled prisoners lately from Salisbury, N.C.” [Annapolis, Md.? : G.G.B DeWolfe, 1865]. North Carolina Collection, Wilson Library, UNC. Cb970.77 D52L.

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27 February 1865: “numerous desertions are now occurring among the troops from our State and many of them are going to the enemy.”

Item Description: Letter dated 27 February 1865 signed by the officers of the North Carolina Troops. It brings up concerns about desertions and low morale among members of the army.

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Item Citation: Folder 212, William A. Graham Papers, #00285, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Army of Northern Virginia

Feby . 27th 1865

Sir

We, the officers of the North Carolina Troops, at this time present with the Army of Northern Virginia, desire to represent to you, which we do with much regret that numerous desertions are now occurring among the troops from our State and many of them are going to the enemy.

We believe that the Spirit of discontent among our soldiers over its birth and growth to the influences of those of our citizens at home, who by evil ? and by fears have been made to despair of the success of our cause, and are ? while the soldiers are home on furlough and through the mails, instilling into them opinions which too often cultivate in desertion. We are led to this conclusion by intercepted letters, addressed to those who have deserted.

Persuaded that much good would result to our people and consequently to the Army if our Senators and Members of Congress could as early as practicable, ? ? people with ? of cheer encouraging the timid satisfying the discontented and ? party discord we have concluded to address to you this memorial expressing our views upon a subject which we think of vital importance, asking that you will communicate them to your colleagues.

To you personally we desire especially to appeal, who by reason of your long and eminent public services and the great confidence ? in you by our people, can more than any one else command their sympathy to go among them and endeavor to write them again in an honest and hearty support of our cause, thus renewing in our soldiers that enthusiasm and pride which has caused them in the past to win for their State and themselves an undying name.

Believing that the effort of yourself and colleagues they exerted would under the blessings of God, do much for the good our country, we much heartily write in asking that they may be used in its behalf.

We are Sir, with great respect

Very truly,

To

Hon. Wm A. Graham

C.S. Senate

Richmond

Va

[List of Names]

We heartily approve of the views expressed in the forgoing memorial and earnestly trust that our Representatives may be enabled to comply with its suggestions. In addition we will add that we are persuaded that an additional cause of discontent and dissatisfaction arise from a want of organization and discipline which has been decayed by promises of consolidation, which has caused a feeling of uncertainty to exist among our troops. We therefore respectfully request to know as speedily as may be deemed expedient what action has been taken in regard to that ?

{List of Names}

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26 February 1865: “I now have the honour to tender my resignation”

Item Description: Frank G. Ruffin turns in his resignation to his commanding officer. He cites his failing health and other personal reasons. Ruffin owned a plantation in Virginia before the war.

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Item Citation: Folder 58, in the Frank G. Ruffin Papers, #640, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Item Transcription:

Richmond Feby 26 1865

Genl. J. M. St. John

Commissary Genl.

Sir

Your letter of Feby 21st: in reply to mine of the 20th was recd: & would have been sooner answered but for continued indisposition.

I now have the honour to tender my resignation of the office I hold on account of failing health, & other considerations not necessary to be mentioned, as they are altogether personal to myself.

As my accounts have all been passed through the office of the C.G.S., I hope, & respectfully request that there may be no delay in the accepting of this resignation.

Renewing the occurrence of my report and regard I remain.

Very Respectfully

Your obt: servant

Frank G. Ruffin

Lt: Col. C.S.

 

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25 February 1865: “…as will hereafter prevent consequences so unjust and injurious to said farming interests.”

Item Description: Resolution passed by the General Assembly of the state of Virginia, in relation to the Confederate States impressment laws.

[Scans courtesy of Internet Archive and Duke University Library. This item can also be found via the Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.]

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Item Citation: “Resolution passed by the General Assembly of the state of Virginia, in relation to the Confederate States impressment laws.” Confederate States of America. Congress. Senate.; Richmond, Va., 1865. Call number 222 Conf., Rare Book Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

 

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24 February 1865: “Sunday night about 6 P.M. we got the word officially that Charleston was ours…”

Item Description: Letter dated 24 February 1865 from Jonathan Lewis Whitaker to his wife, Julia A. Wells Whitaker. He was a physician from Orange County, New York serving with the 26th United States Colored Troops near Beaufort, South Carolina. Whitaker writes about receiving word that Charleston has been taken.

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Item Citation: Folder 3, Jonathan Lewis Whitaker Papers, #03674-z, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Item Transcription:

The U.S. Christian Commission,

Sends this sheet as the Soldier’s Messenger to his home.

Let it haste to those who wait for tidings.

General Sherman’s Army

26th Regt. M. Y. C. J. Army Corps

Beaufort SC Feb. 24th 1865

My dear wife

I have considerable work to do today and so I can take but little time or pains in writing this letter. But I hope it may be acceptable to you, what there is of it, as it comes from one in whose heart love and affection remains as strong as ever, if indeed it does not gain new strength as days and months and years roll on.

I received a letter from you mailed the 15th on the 21st it marking a shorter trip I think than any of your letters ever did before only six days from New Milford. In that letter you state a fact which surprised and under the circumstances worries me a little. You say that in the last two letters you have written you have enclosed $10. each. I have received neither of those letters yet, and they have been out now from fifteen to twenty days. I am inclined to hope they will turn up yet, but it is somewhat doubtful.

I am sorry you sent it. I did not ask you to send it, and did not need it now, as I got plenty for the present from Peter + Han. The mails here now are very irregular, and we cant depend upon anything. Before Shermans army came here + before Savannah was taken our mails were very regular, but now every body is complaining they dont get half their letters. They go to Savannah, they go to Sherman, they go to North Carolina + other places. Sometimes they come back + sometimes they dont. Until they get in better condition dont send anything of value in the mail, but write all the oftener, I write to you every mail. You say in yours of the 15th that John R had returned from Orange Co + that Em was better. What is the matter of Em? + what was John to Orange Co again for? You will have to write some of your news twice over if I dont get the missing letters. We have not been paid yet but the prospect is good for getting next month. I am very well and ? every day.

We have good news to send you from this department this week. Sunday night about 6 PM we got word officially that Charleston was ours, and soon we heard the big guns from Hilton Head + Savannah being fired in honor of the great event + then we had orders to fire ours, and 108 heavy cannon were fired at sunrise on monday morning making us feel as though we were in a big fight. The news from every quarter is most cheering, and all of us are in the best possible spirits on that account.

Some are sanguine enough to believe that the war is going to end in a month or two, but I’m afraid there is some great battles to be fought first. Poor, foolish, people! Why will they be so desperate, so cruel in an unworthy cause, as to compel their underlings to fight against their will; that their soldiers all desire peace on any terms cannot be doubted, but they are still kept in arms by their superiors against their will. God grant to soften the hearts of the leaders of the southern people, and bring them to see the hopelessness of their cause, and incline them to yield to the laws of that government they so long have violated. I will now close for the present, as my time just now is limited, and this must go in the office to day. We get along quite smoothly now, Dr. Jewelman has returned from the front. There is but little doubt but we stay here all summer. It is getting to be quite like spring, people are digging up their ground to plant their cotton, and gardens. I shall commence on our garden in a few days.

Kiss the babies for me and tell them all to be good and mind mamma + Grandma, and remember papa, and tell them that some of these long days if God spares his life and strength he will come home again and see you all.

Till then darling, I can only write and receive writing but that is a blessed privilege. Let us try and be thankful for our Heavenly Father for what we do enjoy instead of mourning + fretting over what we have not. Remember me to all our friends

Lewis

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23 Febrary 1865: “There is one thing sertain this war cannot last many months longer”

Item Description: A letter from Theodore W. Skinner to his family regarding his thoughts on Wilmington, Jefferson Davis, the War, and the moral of his fellow soldiers in the aftermath of the Battle of Wilmington.

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Item Citation: Unit 45, in the Federal Soldiers’ Letters #3185, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Wilmington, NC

Feb 23/65

Dear folkes at home

Wilmington is ours. The enemy evacuated it night before last. We took possession of the place yesterday morning. The place is strongly fortified it does not seem as if they would go and leave such works it must be that rebellion is about placed. It must make old Jeff feel rather weak in the knees to have so many of the yanks to work in his rear. I should not be surprised if he was (?) Richmond before many days. When Shermans army and Yarry (?) form a junction and march on to Richmond he will rather have to vacuate the place and be captured and I do not think he would like the idea of being captured. There is one thing sertain this war cannot last many months longer. I think all of the soldiers that live to see an other [sic] winter can spend their time at home. The rebs did not make much of a stand we out flanked them every time we have had to do a great deal of marching but it has accomplished all that we desired. Wilmington is not so much of a place as I expected to find it. The buildings look old. There are a plenty of citizens in this town any quantity of women both white and black and quite a number of men. The boys’ll feel pretty well they had some hard marching but what they have accomplished is a good medicine for all complaints. I am well as usual. My feet were sure sore but a good nights rest has done a good deal towards curing them and are encamped about three quarters of a mile out of town. I do not think we shall remain here many days. Well I must close. Love to all. From your boy. Theodore W. Skinner

 

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22 February 1865: “I have seen the “Abomination of Desolation”. It is even worse than I thought. The place is literally in ruins.””

Item description: Entry, dated 22 February 1865, from the diary of Emma Florence LeConte, the daughter of scientist Joseph LeConte of Columbia, S.C.

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Item citation: From the Emma LeConte Diary, #420-z, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Wed. Feb. 22nd.
– I meant last night to write down some description of what I had seen, but was too wretchedly depressed and miserable to even think of it. This morning we have heard that he is safe and I can take up my journal again. Yesterday afternoon we walked all over the town in company with Miss Ellen LaBordo – Yes, I have seen it all – I have seen the “Abomination of Desolation”. It is even worse than I thought. The place is literally in ruins. The entire heart of the city is in ashes – only the outer edges remain. On the whole length of Sumter Street not one house beyond the first block after the Campus is standing, except the brick house of Mr. Mordecai. Standing in the centre of the town, as far as the eye can reach nothing is to be seen but heaps of rubbish, tall dreary chimneys and shattered brick walls, while “In the hollow windows, dreary horror’s sitting”. Poor old Columbia – where is all her beauty – so admired by strangers – so loved by her children! She can only excite the pity of the former and the tears of the latter. I hear several Yankee officers remarked to some citizens on the loveliness of their town as they first saw it by sunrise across the river.

Blanding Street, crossing Main and Sumter at right angles, the finest street in town, is also a sad picture. The Preston house with its whole square of beautiful gardens escaped. It was Gen. Logan’s headquarters. The Crawford house – the Bryce’s – the Howe’s and one or two others also escaped. All nearer Main Street were burned. The Clarkson house is a heap of brick with most of its tall columns standing, blackened by the smoke. Bedell’s lovely little house is in ruins while as if in mockery the shrubbery is not even scorched – But I cannot particularize – with very few exceptions all our friends are homeless. We enter Main Street – since the war in crowd and bustle it has rivalled a city thoroughfare – what desolation! Everything has vanished as by enchantment – stores, merchants, customers – all the eager faces gone – only three or four dismal looking people to be seen picking their way over heaps of rubbish, brick and timbers. The wind moans among the bleak chimneys and whistles through the gaping windows of some hotel or warehouse. The market a ruined shell supported by crumbling arches – its spire fallen in and with it the old town clock whose familiar stroke we miss so much. After trying to distinguish localities and hunting for familiar buildings we turned to Arsenal Hill. Here things looked more natural. The Arsenal was destroyed but comparatively few dwellings. Also the Park and its surroundings looked familiar. As we passed the old State house going back I paused to gaze on the ruins – only the foundations and chimneys – and to recall the brilliant scene enacted there one short month ago. And I compared that scene with its beauty, gayety and festivity – the halls so elaborately decorated – the surging throng – with this. I reached home sad at heart and full of all I had seen. Presently we heard a commotion in the yard. Running out on the back verandah we saw, standing in the middle of the yard, Sandy and the boys and the negroes who had remained grouped around them. As soon as they saw us Annie screamed! “The Yankees has caught ‘em. Mass Johnny’s come back and Master’s took prisoner.” Asking Sandy about father, he said that he and Capt. Green were in the woods when the party was captured – we could learn nothing succinct from him, and all tired as we were, rushed over to see Johnny. We found him in the kitchen with Cousin Lula and the two white servants – all the rest were out. Johnny gave us a description of their capture. The Yankees they fell in with treated them kindly and he thought Uncle John would soon be paroled. He thought father must have been captured, as the woods were alive with Yankees – he did not see how they could escape, and he feared he would fare worse for trying to escape. And even if he did escape the country had been so entirely swept that he could get nothing to eat. Father and Capt. Green were out scouting when the wagons were taken. As Johnny started home yesterday and had seen father last on Sunday morning, there seemed little grounds to hope that he had not been taken. Yet if I had been certain of his capture it would have been less dreadful than the thought of his hiding in the woods cold and hungry and the possibility of being shot. It was dreadful – everything was burst open – all our silver and valuables stolen – articles of clothing slashed up by bayonets and burned, with father’s valuable books carried off for safety, and all our table linen and bedding, blankets etc.. But we did not once think of these things in the great anxiety and distress about father. Then Aunt Josie and Aunt Jane, Mrs. Green and Cousin Ada came in. Cousin Lula went to break the news. Aunt Josie was quite overcome – she and mother wept together, Aunt Jane trying to comfort them. I drew back in the shadow of the staircase – it seemed as if my heart would break, and I cried by myself till Cousin Ada turning said “poor Emma” and put her arms around me. It was dark and we had to go home. I rushed upstairs to my room and threw myself down beside the bed – my heart was bursting – one horrible picture always before my eyes. This morning mother learned from Moultrie Gibbes that father is safe. He saw him at a house 18 miles from Columbia. It is impossible to tell of the relief after such suspense. I feel so thankful. We learned from Sandy that the negroes at the nitre plantation, who were along, have taken possession of and brought home some of our things. Mother and Aunt Josie went to Capt. Stanley of the provost guard and he has promised to institute a thorough search for them. But how could we guess that our house would not be treated like the rest. Luckily we did not send off our summer clothing. Sandy says they dived immediately into the box of wine and told him to tell his mistress they were much obliged, as they swallowed hock and champagne.

Henry says one mill has been spared and we can get corn ground. The negroes are flocking in from the devastated country to be fed. Mayor Goodwyn has ordered them to be sent back, as the town is threatened with starvation. Indeed I do not know what will become of us unless relief comes in, from Edgefield or Augusta. In every other direction we understand the country is a desert – Orangeburg, Winnsboro’, Chester, Camden – all in ashes. Incarnate fiends! And Sherman! – “O for a tongue to curse the slave.”

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21 February 1865: “There is not a house I believe in Columbia that has not been pillaged”

Item Description: Entry, dated 21 February 1865, from the diary of Emma Florence LeConte, the daughter of scientist Joseph LeConte of Columbia, S.C. She writes with anger about the destruction that has taken place in Columbia.

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Item Citation: From the Emma LeConte Diary, #420-z, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Tuesday 21st.
– The night with its fear of stragglers is past and we may breathe more freely but not less sadly. The destruction and desolation around us which we could not feel while under such excitement and fear now exerts its full sway. Sad? – The very air is fraught with sadness and silence. The few noises that break the stillness seem melancholy and the sun does not seem to shine as brightly, seeming to be dimmed by the sight of so much misery. I was at Aunt Josie’s this morning and there learned for the first time the extent of suffering. O God! When we think of what we have escaped and how almost miraculously we have been saved we should never rise from our knees. There is not a house I believe in Columbia that has not been pillaged – those that the flames spared were entered by brutal soldiery and everything wantonly destroyed. The streets were filled with terrified women and children who were offered every insult and indignity short of personal outrage – they were allowed to save nothing but what clothes they wore, and there is now great suffering for food. It would be impossible to describe or even to conceive the pandemonium and horror. There is no shadow of doubt that the town was burned by Sherman’s order. All through Georgia, it is said, he promised his men full license in South Carolina. The signals both for firing and ceasing were given – the soldiers were provided with the materials for the work – and yet I hear that he already denies it and tries to put the responsibility on Gen. Hampton. At one time Friday night, when Aunt Josie’s house and other buildings were taking fire, the College buildings were given up and the poor wounded soldiers who could not be moved resigned themselves to death.

Dr. Carter says it was a touching sight to see the poor fellows trying manfully to nerve themselves to meet their fate. And there was the regiment ostensible sent to extinguish the fire, calmly looking on without raising a finger, and the patriots on the streets themselves applying the torch. The hospital was saved by one Yankee Captain and two men – yet it contained many of their own wounded soldiers. The unfinished granite State house was not blown up because they were short of powder and it is unroofed. All that could be destroyed was ruined by the burning of the work-sheds – fine carving, capitals, columns, ornamental work etc., I can hardly help feeling that our total exemption from insult and plunder was due in some way to the influence of the strange man who called himself Davis and promised us protection. Why in many houses the very guards stationed to protect helped the soldiers in smashing and destroying. It is sickening to listen to the tale of distress, much more to try to write of it. A heavy curse has fallen on this town – from a beautiful bustling city it is turned into a desert.

How desolate and dreary we feel – how completely cut off from the world. No longer the shrill whistle of engine – no daily mail – the morning brings no paper with news from outside – there are no lights – no going to and fro. It is as if a city in the midst of business and activity were suddenly smitten with some appalling curse. One feels awed if by chance the dreary stillness is broken by a laugh or too loud a voice. How unhappy poor father and Uncle John – Julian and Cousin Johnny will be when they hear of this. There has even been a report afloat that Aunt Josie’s house was burned and Cousin Lula perished in the flames – if they should hear that!

I wonder if the vengeance of heaven will not pursue such fiends! Before they came here I thought I hated them as much as was possible – now I know there are no limits to the feeling of hatred.

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20 February 1865: “the last of the army is leaving the city”

Item Description: Entry, dated 17 February 1865, from the diary of Emma Florence LeConte, the daughter of scientist Joseph LeConte of Columbia, S.C. She continues to describe the aftermath of the burning of Columbia.

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Item Citation: From the Emma LeConte Diary, #420-z, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Monday Feb. 20th
– Quite early this morning a Yankee entered the yard looking for Henry, who forthwith locked himself in his room. Mother went out and asked the mean filthy devil if he wished to make Henry go against his will. He hesitated a little, and said “no”, but he wished to see him. The soldier – the dirtiest, meanest looking creature imaginable – told mother, when she threatened to send for the guard if he did not leave, that he was one of the guard himself. “Well” said mother “there are two officers at my sister’s house and I will send to them”. The Yankee turned and left the yard. Mrs. Bell tells us that Sherman turned loose upon us a brigade that he had never allowed to enter any other city on account of their desperate and villainous character. And yet they talk now of being ashamed of what followed, and try to lay it on the whiskey they found! Shortly after breakfast – O joyful sight – the two corps encamped behind the Campus back of us marched by with all their immense wagon trains on their way from Columbia. They tell us all will be gone by tomorrow evening. O that we were completely rid of them! and that father were with us.

I might then know what it is to feel happy one moment. Under other circumstances it would have been a wonderful sight to see this great army with its endless trains march by. With the memory of Friday night burned in it was hard to look at them.

A great drove of lean ill-looking cattle was driven into the Campus today – our two cows have not been taken from us. Neither the Roman Catholic, Trinity (Episcopal) or Presbyterian Churches were burnt. It was a miracle the latter was saved – everything around it was destroyed. In Trinity churchyard soldiers were encamped. Of course there was no Service in any of the churches yesterday – no Church bells ringing – the Yankees riding up and down the streets – the provost guard putting up their camp – there was nothing to suggest Sunday. What balmy, delicious weather we have had for three days past – most fortunate it is or there would have been even more suffering. Henry has already cut down two trees in the yard to give us fuel. ***** Mother has just this moment returned from Aunt Josie’s bringing the news that the last of the army is leaving the city. The provost guard has broken up camp also. This leaves the terror of stragglers before us – we expected the guard would remain a day or two. There is no knowing what outrages may be committed. Mother is going to try to get Mr. Thomson to stay here at night. She wants to send me to Aunt Josie’s but I will not leave her alone. We must trust to Henry’s protection.

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19 February 1865: ” if only the whole army could have been roasted alive!”

Item Description: Entry, dated 17 February 1865, from the diary of Emma Florence LeConte, the daughter of scientist Joseph LeConte of Columbia, S.C.

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Item Citation: From the Emma LeConte Diary, #420-z, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Sunday, Feb. 19th.
– The day has passed quietly as regards the Yankees. About eleven o’clock last night as everything seemed quiet and Henry intended to sit up, I thought I would follow mother’s example and get some rest. So without taking off my clothes – only loosening them – I lay down and slept soundly all night. I woke at seven much refreshed. Sallie in a few moments opened her eyes and said, “O mother, is it already day? I am so glad – I thought the light in the window was the reflection from a fire”. I rose, took off my clothes for the first time in three days, and after bathing and putting on clean clothes felt like another being. This morning fresh trouble awaited us. We thought the negroes were going to leave us. While we were on the back piazza Mary Ann came to us weeping and saying she feared the Yankees were going to force Henry to go off with them, and of course she would have to go with her husband. He did not want to go and would not unless forced. She seemed greatly distressed at the thought of leaving the master and mistress who had supplied the place of father and mother to her, an orphan. The others, Maria and her children, want to go I think. They have been dressed in their Sundays best all day. Mary Ann when she came to get dinner said she could cook two more meals for us anyway. Mother went over to Aunt Josie’s to consult her . She advised that, if they left, mother should get Dr. Thomson to put some sick men in our house to protect it, and we must all move over there as she has two white servants. On her return however she talked to Henry, who vows he will never leave us unless dragged away, and he thinks he can avoid them. They are free however at present and we ask as little as possible of them – such as cooking our little food and bringing water from the well. The water-works being destroyed we have to get water from the Campus well. If Jane offers to clean up our room, all very well – if not, we do it ourselves. This afternoon I washed the dinner things and put the room to rights. The house is untouched except this one room we live in which I manage to keep neat and clean. This is my first experience in work of this kind and I find it is better than doing nothing. The negroes, when we ask, however seem quite willing and have given us not the slightest impertinence. While mother was at Aunt Josie’s I took Carrie up in the drawing room to amuse her. While we stood by the front window the house was shaken by a terrible explosion. As the gas works were burning at the time, I concluded it was the gasometer, but remembering we had had no gas for two or three days that seemed impossible. Henry has just explained it. Our men had buried a number of shells near the river – an attempt was made to excavate them and one going off accidentally exploded the rest, killing wounding a great many Yankees. How I rejoice to think of any of them being killed. Dr. Bell says about 200 were burnt up Friday night – drunk perhaps – if only the whole army could have been roasted alive!

The provost guard is encamped opposite the Campus. It consists of one battalion and is to remain until the last straggler leaves town. Two of the officers went to Aunt Josie’s and saying they wished quarters opposite their camp – she was obliged to accommodate them and give up her library for their use. Their horrid old gridiron of a flag is flaunting its bars in our faces all day. Ever since dark thick clouds of smoke have been rolling up from the arsenal and I fear the flames will spread over the hill. Mary Ann came to see us in great distress this afternoon to tell us that a Yankee had sworn to her that these buildings should be burned tonight. Enquiring of an officer, mother was assured there was no danger – I suppose it was only a drunken threat. Mother looked over the town this morning from Aunt Josie’s attic window. She described a scene of fearful desolation. Here all is hidden from us. When they are gone I will walk out of the Campus and see it all – yet how I dread it! Poor Columbia! Sometimes I try to picture it to myself as it now is, but I cannot. I always see the leafy streets and lovely gardens – the familiar houses. I cannot imagine the ruins and ashes to save my life. How I hate the people who have done this! A few moments ago there was a violent ring the the bell. I was the only person awake, and I roused Jane up and sent her upstairs. It was some Yankee officers who wished to know where Mayor Goodwyn lived. Sherman it seems wished to appoint a meeting with him in order to leave arms for the citizens to protect them from stragglers.

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