17 March 1864: “Those soldiers report everything quiett in the front they say they are on the hunt of two men that has stolen horses from their command…”

Item Description:  Letter dated 17 March 1864, from F. Margaret Espey to her brother Joseph S. Espey, a member of Company D, 65th Georgia Volunteers stationed mainly in Tennessee and Georgia, who was frequently ill and wrote of the medical care he received.  In this letter, F. Margaret Espey discusses confederate money, stories and updates from Confederate soldiers concerning stolen horses and confrontations with Yankees, their father’s seed potato crops, church, and family life.17March186417March18642Item Citation:  Letter dated 17 March 1864, in the Joseph Espey Papers, #3349-z, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Texas Valley Geo March 17th, 1864

Mr. Jos S Espey – My much loved brother – I am again favored with the privilege of responding to your very kind & interesting letter of the 7th inst – which we duly received & read with much pleasure. I have long since learned to look for the arrival of our weekly mail with much interest – for I always expect something from you — I hardly know how to write in order to interest you for all that I can think of seems of such little importance. But however I will try to proceed & not be entirely void of interest – so before proceeding further I will state that we still all remain well – and I hope you are still in good health – - Cousin Jos returned home last Saturday – he had no difficulty in making the trip he had no counterfeit money in any he took he taken for several persons I don’t know how many or how much – he deposited the money & received certificates for it – - – - If you can’t do anything with what you have try and send it home & father says he will send or try to send it off – it is said that it can’t be taken in only even hundreds – perhaps you can put yours in with some person & make out another hundred – - There is two soldiers here to night that say they are just from Dalton & say that there is a [?] agent [?] there in the army if it be so you will perhaps have but little trouble in getting what you have fixed up. Those soldiers report everything quiett in the front they say they are on the hunt of two men that has stolen horses from their command – one of the horses stolen they say belonged to capt Coon of Cleveland Tenn – - – night before last a soldier staid here that said his home is in Lookout Valley near Mr Grayson he said he had just left there a few days ago & Mr Grayson’s family was well he says he was captured a few days after he returned from here & the Yankees made him take the oath & he is now at home – preparing to make a crop himself – - the soldier bringing this news represents Dade as being in a bad condition a great many Lincolnites there & not much to eat – - – - The yankee prisoner affair I mentioned last week – I understand was nothing or a little worse than nothing they I suppose had had a little too much liquor a head – so concluded to have a frolic & sent one of their own crowd on a head for the yankee – if their intention was to raise excitement I don’t think they was well paid for there trouble for there was but very little if any – - – - Last Saturday Father opened his seed potatoes & found them tolerable sound he ? 2 bushels for ourselves – there had been a great many wanting seed potatoes – so on Monday he devided out what few he had I think there was about 8 ½ bushels in all he sold them at $10 per bu – - – Judge Selman come up himself to get his share & Parson Austin came up himself for his & Mr. McKinney for his but I am rather unfortunate I went with Mrs. Griffin to Mr. Callahan’s to get her seed potatoes but they had rotted – so Father had to let her have a few, & the old widows came while we was gone Mrs. G staid here Monday night we spent the day very very pleasantly with Mrs. Callahan or at least what time we was there – while we was there Miss [?] Duke sent & got a half gallon of syrup for her weding which was to come off the next day I have not heard any more from it she was to marry a Mr. Beard a cousin to her – - – - [?] & me & Adaline went to church last Sabbath & Mr. Martin a very interesting sermon [?] you may find in the firs epistle of Jno 3rd chap & part of the 8 verse (For this purpose the son of God was manifested that he might destroy the works of the devil) There has been preaching at Armuchee every Sabbath in this month & there is an appointment there next Sabbath & the following one – Adaline & me call & spent an hour or too with Mrs. Buffington’s very pleasantly & then her Brother was there which of course made our visit more pleasant – - – By our last weeks mail I received a letter from cousin Sam he said he was in good health & cousin Jos Hargis also they was at Mobile when he wrote which was the 26 [?] – - – Aunt Amy was here last Tuesday they was all well then. The weather has been very cold this week for the season – I hope though you have been able to keep yourself comfortable – - Adaline sends her respects & the love of all of the family you will remember & much too – May you ever be guided in paths of pleasantness – is the desire of your humble but loveing sister

F Margaret Espey

PS March 18th We are all well this morning & Father is aiming to go to the Po. to day I hope you will excuse this poorly pened letter I am ever you loveing sister
Mrs. Go I think is looking for Lt if he comes we will expect a letter

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16 March 1864: “I believe that the recent legislation upon currency will temporarily inspire confidence in the people…”

Item description: Letter, dated 16 March 1864, from John L. Schon to John Kimberly in Chapel Hill.  The letter concerns Kimberly’s attempts to purchase supplies to be able to teach chemistry classes at the University of North Carolina, as well as family news and Schon’s opinions on the inflation of Confederate currency.

[transcription available below images]

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Item citation: From folder 44 in the John Kimberly Papers #398, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Atlanta, Ga,

March 16. 1864.

Dear Kimberly,

I received in due course of mail your letter of Feby 17th with its enclosure.

Enclosed I hand you your due bill for 860$ canceled  also $3.75.  Postage stamps in exchange for the currency $3.75 you sent me.

I have written twice to Mr. John F. Casey of Penton, Casey & Co. of Augusta, to whom your [cardey?] of nitric acid was consigned – he informs me that he has tried repeatedly to ship it by Rail, but the Road will not yet receive it, and the Express Co. will not take it upon any terms. to prevent the [intiation?] of his policy of insurance he was compelled to store the Carbon in a Drug House. I fear you can-not remove the Carbon from Augus-ta to Chapel Hill, unless you have some one to personally take charge of it.  If you think I can serve you in any way in reference to the removal  of the acid – [ante?] me.

I hope you have not inconvenienced yourself to remit me the $860.00 for I had made such arrangements that I could do without it.

My dear little John has been very ill with diptheria and Annie & I have felt great anx-iety about him – he is now however slowly convalescing  – he other youngster Maney is growing rapidly and bids fair to be a fine boy.  Tell Bettie i will write her in a few days.  Say to Mother that George & Bettie have gone to visit Mrs. Hayden.  James has not yet returned from Petersburg.  William is still in Dalton -he wrote me last week, that he was again comfortably quartered in his cabin.  Frank I heard from yesterday, he is still in Savannah under orders from Col. Walter A. A. Genl.

Nothing new here. You ask my opinion about the currency. I believe that the recent legislation upon currency will temporarily inspire confidence in the people, and for the while induce them to believe from heavy taxation, that the Government can & will pay its debts so long as this impression prevails prices of all articles (save those especially regulated by the law of demand and supply) will for months be reasonable, but will again increase as our circulation expands, for expand it will in effect, if [?] Mr. Menninger’s figures.

Confidentially I expect that 8 per cent, 7 per cent, and 6 per cent bonds will all be reduced to a level with 4 per cent bonds, and then consolidated, giving us a perma-nent material debt, as the English Consols, interest being paid regularly, but the principal never.  Give my love to Mother, Bettie, and the children.

Present my regards to the young ladies.  Let me hear from you soon.  With regards and best wishes

Yours truly

Jno. L. Schon


Prof. Jno Kimberly

Chapel Hill

No. Ca.




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15 March 1864: “I should have received “more’n a hundred bushels” of letters from the young ladies”

Item Description: Letter, 15th March 1864, from Edward W. Allen to his parents, James and Emily Allen. Edward W. Allen of Eau Claire, Wis., was a sergeant and then second lieutenant in Company H of the 16th Regiment, Wisconsin Infantry Volunteers, during the Civil War. He had several siblings, including James F. (Fred) Allen who served in Company K, 36th Regiment of Wisconsin Volunteers.

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Item Citation: From folder 1 of the Edward W. Allen Papers #3737-zSouthern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Camp of 16th Regt of Wis Inf Volunteers
Vicksburg, Miss. March 15th 1864

Dear Parents

Wonder what’s the trouble with the mails no mail yet! I cant think that you have not written It cant be that because if it was nothing more than that (as Lt Tinker would say) I should have received “more’n a hundred bushels” of letters from the young ladies

But ours “not to question why”

Yester the wife of ex Gov Harvey was over to see us about the man that died I was introduced & had a short talk with her I spoke of Grand Ma. she remembered her well she is a nice woman & is doing a great deal of good for the soldiers. She told Capt Whipper if any of his men were homesick to let them go down & spend a day or two with her. I am not home sick but I’de like to take up with her offer for a few days

Yester day Lt Tinker was taken down with the summer … & had rather a severe night of it but is better today I’ve not been troubled with it at all yet, though there are lots of the boys that are

Last night was a very cold night & to day it is windy & cold though such a day in wis at this time of the year would be called warm peach trees are in full blossom There is a rumor current that the 3 Co’s here must furnish 50 men for Picket every day which means that 50 men must sling knapsacks take 1 days ration, shoulder arms & march a few miles at a time to the rear of vicksburg & watch for Rebs for … his Officers (except st sergts) included

The order has come Lt Tinker a corporal & 7 men from our Co go out an picket Last night I recd a letter from Eliza Potter she wrote a good interesting letter it seems good to get a letter from Eau Claire no matter who tis from but this evening I recd another from Miss Roworth she wrote me an excellint letter says she has heard that Fred had enlisted with Father’s consent I am sorry if he has as it will leave you with out help no one to wash dishes. If he has enlisted for Co H 16th it may be 40 years before he gets with us

Papers say that the 17th army Corps (go to Richmond) that means us Grant wants us & we are ready. Last night the railroad depot burned. A Large building Some Govt stores were destroyed

Lt Tinker is well again as you may judge of his being detailed for picket duty

This after noon we had another officer drill at last. I mean non commissioned officers drill. I am getting quite Profficient. today I had the camp out drilling for nearly 2 hours. In the forenoon one man ran off to get Rid of drill & another got mad about some part of the drill I was showing him. So after I dismissed them I took them out in an awkward squad & drilled them till I was glad to quit that is the way we serve men who shirk duty in the army. If a man is absent from Roll call 2 or 3 times make him sweet the camp street dig holes & shovel the dirt in them again or something of the like. We have a good deal of sick ness 4 or 5 go up for medicine every morning we have 25 men in the Hospital now

Miss Roworth wrote that my photographs were not good neither are they but the best I could do at madison Have you recd yours yet? Enclosed is $5 in Reb Currency for which I paid 5 cents please … to my credit Capts wife writes that Ed Wilkins had enlisted also that men were enlisting fast

Please write a good long letter & tell me all the news. If Fred has enlisted he can get in with the old 16th & come down with them I am waiting for a letter from [Joe?] & Charley. Tell the meat man to add a P.S. to it. Emma & Cord Pond also my Love to Levis folks also Williams tell them to write I musnt forget grandma how is she getting on. Tell may … not to hurry with that money as I do not want it now you may have it mother if you can get it also that of Chas Moshier, why does not Charly & Sue write? How are things at home Father must set out some more trees & shrubbery & have the place looking nice against I come home which wont be long now as grant is Lt [Gin?]

Capt Sherman was in last night in a big spree with capt Deforrest had 5 or 6000 dollars in greenbacks. 

Please write soon & long letters too

Direct to Co H 16th Regt Wis Inf Vols. We are in the (1st Brigade 1st Division 17th Army Corp) do not put this on

Vicksburg Miss

Your affection-ate
son Edward

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14 March 1864: Maps of Fort DeRussy on the Red River, Louisiana

Item description: Maps, dated 1864, from the Jeremy Francis Gilmer Collection depicting Fort DeRussy and the Red River in Louisiana.  Fort DeRussy fell to Union forces during the Red River Campaign on 14 March 1864.


Item citation: Fort DeRussy and vicinity from the Gilmer Civil War Maps Collection in series 5 of the Jeremy Francis Gilmer Papers #276, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


Item Citation: Fort DeRussy on Red River, Louisiana, from the Gilmer Civil War Maps Collection in series 5 of the Jeremy Francis Gilmer Papers #276, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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13 March 1864: “Genl Longstreet is playing a very bold game…”

Item description: Letter, dated 13 March 1864, from John Edwards to W. R. McLaws relating details of the court martial of Major General Lafayette McLaws.  McLaws stood trial for his actions during the 1863 battles surrounding Knoxville, Tennessee, including failure to cooperate with General Longstreet.

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Item citation: From folder 10 in the Lafayette McLaws Papers, #472, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Greenville East Tenn.

March 13th 1864

W. R. McLaws Esq.

[D. Sir?]

The General’s case has commenced and up to the adjournment of the court on yesterday (Saturday) two of the most important witnesses for the prosecution had been examined, [Maj.?] Col. E. P. Alexander & Dr. Cullen.  The former testified that he was chf. of arty. for Longstreet and Meade the reconnoizance upon which was made he stated that he reported to Genl Longstreet that in his judgement there was no ditch around the fort, and he also stated that the subject of ladders or fascias was never was never mentioned as it was then the impression such things would not be necessary to carry the fort. After this testimony was taken Genl Benning expressed himself perfectly satisfied as to the result of the case it was intended by the prosicution that this testimony should have a [baring?] on that part of the specifications referring to ladders fascius or other means of crossing the ditch. In an other part of the specifications the Genl is charged for not informing his officers that the ditch on the west side of the fort offered bu t a slight obsticle to his troops entering the fort. this was to have been sustained by Dr. Cullen.  I was present when his testimony was taken he testified that the ditch on the west side on of the fort was from 8 to 10 feet deep and as many wide he also stated the ditch at the point when the assault was made offered the least obstacle than at any part of the work.  You will see that two of the specifications of the chgs. have been killed by the first two witnesses examined for the prosecution the other specifications I think can be easily despensed with at any rate any way the Genl is in very fine spirits.  Genl Longstreet is playing a very bold game and I am inclined to think he will step up before he goes much further. Since I saw you he has arrested Brig Genl Law and I presume will not stop until he arrest Brig Genl Benning. After you left I called to Sec. Genl Bragg.  I was kindly received and he explained himself in such a manner that convinced me he was true friend of Genl McLaws.  As soon as the court was ordered to convene again Genl Longstreet starts for Richmond and is still absent.  Rumors state that Beauregard is to take command of this [Dpt?] if so parties holding Longstreet stock with smash up.  Say to all of the Generals friends that this trial will be the making of him. on receipt of this write to Aunt Emmy and Maj McLaws.  present my kindest regards to your family

Yours truly

John [F.?] Edwards

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12 March 1864: “The report is to day that Kinston and Goldsboro are taken by our troops.”

Item description: Letter, dated 12 March 1864, from James “Jim” Gifford to his parents.  Gifford, a U.S. Naval officer, writes of his life in the navy while stationed near Beaufort, including ship movements and fighting near Kinston and Goldsboro, N.C.

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Item citation: From folder 2 in the James Gifford Papers #4493-z, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

U.S. Ship Release

Beaufort N.C.

March 12th

Dear Parents

I write you these few lines to inform you that I am well as usual.  I received a letter from you a week ago to-day and I received one from Sue last Thursday.  In your letter you wrote that you had posted a letter the day previous containing some photographs but the letter has failed to reach me.  The letter I got from Sue contained two phos. I received my box of clothing a day or two ago. I don’t think much of the suit.  The sack will do for an overcoat next winter. I think some finer cloth could be found.  I bought me a flannel sack and pair of pants that suit me about as well.  Instead of making the collar of the sack narrower than the last one I had made it was a great deal larger, and wider.  I bought twenty eight dollars worth of clothing the same day that I received my box.  In the last two months I have laid out fourteen dollars for show leather and before this week is over I have got to get another pair of shoes or boots.  There is quite lively times around here on account of the enemy movements in this state. The report is to day that Kinston and Goldsboro are taken by our troops.  For the last two or three days there has been considerable fighting the other side of the newbern.  Every soldier in Beaufort was ordered to the front.  There are a great many vessels in the harbor at present.  A day or two ago I could count twenty vessels off the bar at one time.  To night the Sloop of war Shenandoah and the iron clad Lehigh and the gunboat Aries came in.  They are on there way from Charleston S.C. to Hampton Roads.  The Iron Clad will go up James River, where we are going to have a big fight.  All the iron clads that they can get have gone up that river.

I dont hear anything more about going to Wilmington.  I received a letter from the Paymaster last week.  I expect him back some time this week.  This forenoon while I was walking on the beach I met a N.B. man.  His name is Willer and he is a Lieut. in the army.  I went two or three miles outside of the pickets to-day for a stroll.  We got N. York papers to-dy of the 9th.  Yesterday was my birth day and I did not know it until afternoon.

All for to night


Tell Sue I shall write in a day or two.

More about this item: Learn more about the U.S.S. Lehigh, the U.S.S. Shenandoah, and the U.S.S. Aries.

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11 March 1864: “Beauregard has whipped the Yankees at Mud Creek (where is Mud Creek?)”

Item Description: In this entry dated 11 March 1864, Samuel Agnew, a Presbyterian minister, teacher, farmer, and prominent local citizen in Tippah and Lee counties, Mississippi, reported on some local disputes and third hand news of the war. Confederate Generals Lee, Johnston, and Beauregard all had gained victories; Union Generals Sherman and Banks suffered losses. He keenly noted that “This may all be so and again it may not be so.”



Item Citation: Volume 7b, Samuel Agnew Diary #923 in the Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

March 11  This has been a pleasant day. At Aunt M. J’s request rode up to Esq. Nutt’s to present the facts of the case to him. She fears that her conduct will be misrepresented. Nutt says that Mrs. Squires is not willing to do what is right. He says now that he did not retain $19.00 of the cotton money in his hands. This opens up a difficulty between Mrs. Squires and Nutt. With that we have no concern.

Came on home, find Mrs. Mary Bryson, Jane Young and Cousin Laura here. I went on over to Uncle Jo’s and reported to Aunt Mary Jane, came back by dinner. Anderson Reeves came about noon and took 2 Bales of Cotton to take to Memphis “one half for half.” Hickey brought up his young grey mule “Beck” and Wile put it in the waggon and worked it. It is wild as a dear, and cut up generally. Conversed with the ladies during the evening and thus spend the evening pleasantly. Rode over to Aunt Rilla’s and spent the night. Aunt Sarah there. She hears a good quantity of good news. 1500 hands are working on the R.R. Lee has gained a great victory in Va. capturing 11 thousand Yankees. Johnston has had a fight at Dalton, and the first day repulsed the enemy. Nothing has been heard since the first day. Sherman’s entire waggon train was captured before they crossed Pearl River. Beauregard has whipped the Yankees at Mud Creek (where is Mud Creek?) In Florida we have taken some place and captured 4000 prisoners. Banks has been badly whipped in Texas. This may all be so and again it may not be so. Hoskins falls short in his cotton settlement with Brice more than $20.00 Verily honesty seems to have fled the land.

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10 March 1864: “This is certainly a time requireing true repentance & soberness with a sincere desire to be guided by the Holy Spirit in the path of righteousness.”

Item Description: Letter, 10 March 1864, to Joseph S. Espey from his sister Margaret. Joseph was a member of Company D, 65th Georgia Volunteers stationed mainly in Tennessee and Georgia. Joseph’s brother James H. Espey also served in the war, but died in 1862 while stationed near Savannah, Ga.

[Item transcription available below images]



Item citation: From folder 3 of the Joseph Espey Papers #3349-zSouthern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item Transcription:

Friday Morning we are all well this morning

Texas Valley Floyd Co Ga March 10th 1864

Joseph my dear brother

Another week has passed, & I in my poor way endeavor to again address you whome I so much esteem. We very thankfully received your kind letter of the 28th inst… I read it with much pleasure learning you was still well & situated even as well as you was. I fear you denied yourself of rest you was realy needing in order to write to us. I thank you very much for your kindness in writing & would have been ready to have excused you if you had only wrote that you was well, but then I would have expected a long letter after you was rested. as you know I am exceedingly fond of long letters. We all remain very well only Thos complains of the headache ocasionly he has it this evening. Mary seems to be in better health than she has been for some time. & the rest of her family are well. Mary Hargis has not returned yet that I know of. Adaline Duke is here yet. I have not yet wore out my peace of cloth yet & I only had 18 yds in the price. I have a great deal of hindrence from my work one way & another  we now have seven [nice?] little lambs & 2 of them their mothers disown & they require some attention.

Last Sabbath Thos & me went to church (Armicher) & heard a very interesting  sermon by Parson Austin… on monday father took his tax or tythe bacon to cousin Jos to send to [Kevin?] by cousin Jos as he was going down with his & a portion of wheat Father took some wheat & went on to the mill. he there met with Jos Langston & sold his wheat to him. 13 bushels by weight for $200. on monday evening Johnson the same man I mentioned being here last week come & bought Jeff, he give for him $500 & took him off tuesday morning. on last tuesday three Texas rangers captured a yankee report says they heard of him comeing in this direction at … stillhouse & they came on & over taken between here & Athens & then persued him on by Allens & he surrendered some where near the old ginhouse. They stayed at cousin Jos’ & called for water for their prisoner. & he asked for bread which Mary give him. they said they was taking him on to their camp. Yesterday Father took the last of his wheat to mill, he will probably get the flour to morrow He met cousin Jim comeing up to tell him he intended starting to Atlanta this morning to fund or rather bond his money (as it cant be done safely at home) or get certificats for the bonds which ever it may be.

Father says tell you he has sent what he had on hand of yours & his & all that belonged in the family that was in notes over $5. Horn paid in what he had borrowed all he sent of our own amounted to ($1900) nineteen hundred dollars. he sent $200 of Lt Griffins he says you can tell him. he thought as he had the chance of sending it he had better do so without waiting for further instructions, also tell Lt G. that he went down to the court ground to day it being tax collecting day & paid his (Lt G) tax $9 31/100 as Mr. [Garret?] informed him of its not being paid.

Jno Payne come over last monday morning and paid off the Franks not it amounting to $17 50/100 both principle & interest. Dr. Selman & cousin Jim was arriving to go to gather to Atlanta, as they was both going on like business. You may say to Lt G. his family was well yesterday evening I suppose there was quite a frolick or party at Allens last friday night 3 soldiers came here for breakfast saturday morning the said Mrs. Allen would not let them dance, but after she retired they danced the balance of the night. Mrs A was here the day the party come off at night to get me to warp a piece of cloth. She I think was expecting the fest but if she knew it be that night she pretended as if she did not she very freely expressed that professors that would allow the like should be dealt with.  there was none of the girls that lives in this settlement there only Miss Cate Franks & Mary … Miss Sally Martin was there but her parents heard what was up & sent after her so she went home. I think such conduct is shameful to any community at such a time as this especialy. This is certainly a time requireing true repentance & soberness with a sincere desire to be guided by the Holy Spirit in the path of righteousness. I would not have wrote till after to morrows mail if I had known of any chance chance to have mailed it in a day or two I had liked to have forgot Father said tell you the election is defered till next saturday week. I expect your rations are poor now but I hope you may not suffer I hear some complaint of hard liveing up there. I must close hopeing you are well & that you will be enabled to endure all the hardships that you have to undergo & again be restored to our embrace to live in peace & pleasantness.

I remain sincerely your affectionate sister

F Margaret Espey

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9 March 1864: Southern Express Company receipt for North Carolina currency


Item: March 9, 1864 Southern Express Company receipt.  Clicking on image above leads to its record in “Historic Moneys in the North Carolina Collection.”

Historical Note: This receipt records the shipment by Southern Express Company of $6,500* in North Carolina treasury notes from Raleigh to Weldon, N.C., in March 1864.  It is likely that the currency was sent to help purchase provisions or pay state troops stationed in Virginia.  The town of Weldon, as a rail junction, served as a vital supply link to General Robert E. Lee’s army in Virginia.  Also, the dispatcher of the funds identified on this receipt was Major Thomas Devereaux Hogg (1823-1904), the chief commissary of North Carolina’s “Subsistence Department” from September 1861 until the Confederacy’s collapse in 1865.  In postwar accounts of his military service, Hogg stated that his department was responsible for “feeding about half of Lee’s army” during the final stages of the conflict. The presence of Charles Dewey’s signature in the bottom-right corner of this receipt suggests that these state funds were actually disbursed and authorized for shipment from the Bank of North Carolina’s central office, where Dewey worked as a cashier.

* Note that the handwritten amount in text is “Sixteen thousand five hundred Dollars” but in numerical form is “$6,500.00.”



Southern Express Company

Raleigh March 9 1864

Received of Maj T. D. Hogg

One Package sealed and said to contain $6,500.00 N. C. Treasy Notes / Valued at Sixteen thousand five hundred Dollars

Addressed Henry T. Lassiter // Weldon NC.

TO BE FORWARDED AS ADDRESSED IT IS AGREED AND IS PART OF THE CONSIDERATION OF THIS CONTRACT, that the SOUTHERN EXPRESS COMPANY is not to be held responsible, except as forwarders, nor for any LOSS or DAMAGE arising from the dangers of Railroad, Ocean, Steam, or River Navigation, Fire, &c., unless Specially Insured , and so specific in this Receipt; and in no event to be held responsible for the safe transportation of the articles herein receipted for, after the same shall have been delivered to other parties, which the SOUTHERN EXPRESS COMPANY is hereby authorized to do, for completing the trans-portation or delivery; per is it to be liable for any loss or damage whatever, unless claim be made therefor within ninety days from its delivery to it.

[Undecipherable handwriting]

Charged, Paid $5.00 SCR  // For the Proprietors, Dewey

Citation: Southern Express Company receipt for North Carolina currency, 1864; CK915.2; North Carolina Collection Numismatic Collection, Wilson Special Collections Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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8 March 1864: ‘Atherson says the negroes are running off from as high up as Yancy’s and in almost every instance make a safe run.”

Item description: Letter, dated 8 March 1864, presumed to be written by William Rhodes Capehart to his grandfather from Cheraw S.C.  In this letter, Capehart discusses the recent speech given by North Carolina Governor Zebulon Vance in Wilkesboro, N.C., as well as conditions in the Pee Dee region in South Carolina and correspondence with family in North Carolina.

[item transcription available below images]

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Item citation: From folder 3 in the William Rhodes Capehart Papers #2738-z, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Item transcription:

Cheraw S.C.

March 8 1864

My dear Grandpa,

Another spring as come and still no prospect of a cessation of this unnatural [stage?] and no [anual?] more to the Fishery. But our Governor in his exilent speach delivered at Wilksboro assumes no, but to be true to ourselves and all will be right, That is a speach showing him to be a great and good man, but at the same time it shows to outsiders that there is something [mmy?] somewhere, to [?].  Such an address, as they said by the Habeas Corpus, there must be [something?] strong to cause its [?].   That speech will [?] to come as [great?] [?] to the Governor of N. Carolina but will cause the next generation to ask if they were all patriots and [slain?] before our time, why such a speach as that delivered by Gov. Vance. He is an Extraordinary man, and N.C. and Ga. are far ahead of the other states in their Executives.  How unfortunate for us N.C. just now, and not as So. Carolina elect her Governor by the Legislature instead of the people, thereby [?] the [malificate?] That all true more in the state must fill at the seat [W. W. Holam?] with get next [?].  May the Good Lord see fit to take him before, in my Life.

I only saw to-day the [?] of Col. H.M. Shaw of the [G.A.S.C.?] [?] right before hope to all, to see every effort both by land and sea [baffles?] with comp-arative ease Simpler a monument of result of resistance.  The enemy has made no headway [whatevso?] in Gen. [? ?], and I am happy to say I have not seen a man or heard of one who hesitated a moment to volunteer at the [?] by Congress’ consenting those who had a substitute.  That and the manir in which  an army (here almost to a man), [? ?] not from satisfactory to Mr. Lincoln! [Foremost?] I was proud to see Gen. Johnson’s Progress. N. Carolina bad off in the [?] work Gen. [?] army.

I am [very?] [?] to hear from [?]. I am too much [?] to [?] to my native co. – it only shoes how a good leading man can [?] a set of good people. Thompson Cooper Miller & co. had better burn in Hell, [?] Massachusetts a [?] that God Grant may be more [?] to them than N.C. at the end of the war. Col. Rooker and myself rode over a [?] of Col. Daly’s  [bus?] grounds. [?] thought them [very?] rich. The Pedee [ventures on?]  for 1/2 a 2 miles [?].  I have a tho times [negroes?] you to dispose of a fration if you have [20?] for this or the next year.  This is a good place to [resevd?] them – to be haid above hear on the upper water of the  PeDee, they will be safe an in a good [dinale?].


A [negroes?] buy at [1.00?] sild yesterday for cash at $83.00. 20 years old, had been striking a link in a [shain?].

I am [verry?] much afraid & [anglers?] etc. will make up a stock see hard times before long. I wish to touch [Tom?].  (??) to permit me to raise him a thorough bred from the [Brown mare?] he uses . Lo [?] as to let me breed last [spring?], but as [he?] is fancy to bread to [Pallim?] say to him as he and not yet am Exchequer himself. I will give him this one.  I will have an opportunity to raise one another some time I have written both the Rebecca & Raldy but have not received any letter in repaly. How are they all? I hope little Rebecca has becom perfectly strong with herself again. I received a letter from Alanson Capehart some week ago, and he gives me an account of matters and things, and if Laughlin & Co. and us are as bad as the denfeastrates as tho havein men in that part of the state, there will be but little left.  I hope this mercy [had?] the last mo. of storm.  The said of a North Carolenian being a Union man and he [? ?] Eastern part of the state, as perfectly [? ?] to me. Atherson says the negroes are running off from as high up as Yancy’s and in almost every instance make a safe run.  He also stated that in some instances [horses and slaves?] went on [?] of the [?] book together. In the language of Gov. Vance that “we’ve may as to [?] from little of your personal affects  but you can’t make me believe it will bear the weight of a nigger.” Can you and Pa not make a bogus sale of some of you stock to Asa Philps & Hill Capehart. They might be able to protect it against Mes. Laughlin & Co. I have no idia what Col. [James T. Hamlin?] and Col James [Wagners?] can be doing with their [Pyramid?] of Infantry and Cavalry to prevent such a [band?] to remain in an organized state, for the last ten days I have been reading the pictorial history of the Revolution and struck with the [?] that figure in the [?] Revolution almost every prominent man in the [former?] is represented in the latter.  Look at the Lee’s – [?] led Lee, and Charles Lee who was the son of a Gen Lee of the British Army – showing that for years before our Revolution  that that family had been prominent in Military. I learned a good deal about the private history of the family from Dr. Whittle of Va and Redford Brown of our own state, “Blood [will roll?]” The said of the [Ailnigton?] house for years the property of the  Custis family and even some of the Lees should be put up and sold by Lincoln to pay a tax of some $40, and at the same time to be bough in by the Yankee [forts?] is too bad it occured some month since.

More about this item: The speech discusses in this letter, known as the “Address of Governor Vance on the Condition of the Country,” was delivered at Wilkesboro, N.C. on February 22nd, 1864.  The full text of this speech can be found here.

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