“For [antebellum] Southern critics the notion of locking up white men and making them toil amounted to an intolerable inversion of a divinely ordained social hierarchy. ‘Under the Penitentiary system, the free-born citizen is made to labor directly under the lash as a slave,’ fulminated a North Carolina commentator in 1846. ‘Is this not worse than death?’…
“Border states and those with thriving commercial cities built prisons first… only Florida and the Carolinas held out beyond the Civil War….
“With their penitentiaries in ruins and criminal convictions on the rise, every Southern state handed over prisoners to for-profit contractors in the decades after the Civil War. In North Carolina, state officials stuffed convicts into padlocked boxcars and shipped them off to Appalachian railroad camps.
“In response to the powerful ‘good roads movement’ [of the early 20th century, states such as North Carolina] put prisoners to work on state chain gangs.
“The chain gang, in which thousands of prisoners, most of them black, were loaded onto cattle trucks and carted around the state to pound rocks and shovel dirt, was celebrated as a humanitarian advance…. ‘Good roads make good men,’ proclaimed Joseph Hyde Pratt, a geologist and convict labor advocate in North Carolina. ‘Life in the convict road camp… is more conducive to maintaining and building up the general health and manhood of the convict than when he is confined behind prison walls.’ ”
— From “Texas Tough: The Rise of America’s Prison Empire” by Robert Perkinson (2010)