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Members of English 360 used documents from UNC's Wilson Special Collections Library to examine a little-known episode in University history. Continue reading
Back on November 4th, we included a post about the famous UNC vs. William & Mary tie game from 1948. Today, following Saturday’s game between UNC and Virginia Tech, Morton Collection volunteer takes a look at the other tie game from the “Golden Era” of Carolina football.
After the regulation sixty minutes of play this past Saturday (11/21/15) at Lane Stadium in Blacksburg, Virginia, the scoreboard read UNC 24–Virginia Tech 24. Six previous games during the history of the series between these two teams ended in ties. The difference on this day in 2015: the NCAA rules now extend play into a tiebreaker overtime, during which Carolina was able to win 30 to 27.
Five of those previous ties (1896, 1900, 1902, 1906, and 1911) ended up 0 to 0, and since there was no overtime before 1996, those games are in the record book ties. The other tie, in 1946, is the one many old time Tar Heels remember. It was September 28, 1946 when VPI (now Virginia Tech) came into Chapel Hill to meet the Tar Heels in a game that opened the “Golden Era,” or “Charlie Justice Era” as some like to call it. Photographer Hugh Morton was on hand to document this historic game.
UNC wingback Jim Camp, running Head Coach Carl Snavely’s famous reverse, accounted for 50 yards of offense during that Saturday encounter.
On the first play of the second quarter, Charlie Justice had a 68-yard touchdown run and Carolina led at halftime 14 to 0. But in the second half, Justice had two punts blocked that led to VPI scores making the final score 14 to 14. Charlie finished the day with 100 yards rushing on 10 carries. Justice never had another punt blocked during his football career: 39 regular season and 3 bowl games at UNC, plus 58 games with the Washington Redskins and 6 UNC Blue-White games in Chapel Hill.
Ironically, Virginia Tech would not return to Chapel Hill for a game until Saturday, November 6, 2004—the day following the dedication of the Charlie Justice statue.
At the Town Hall meeting about race and inclusion held at Memorial Hall last night, students from The Real Silent Sam and other activists presented a series of demands to university administrators. The demands referenced a similar document from the Black Student Movement in 1968.
On December 11, 1968, representatives of the Black Student Movement presented a list of 23 demands to Chancellor Carlyle Sitterson and other campus administrators. The demands included changes in admissions and financial aid policies, the establishment of a department of African and Afro-American studies, administrative support for black students, and a commitment to address the low wages and inadequate living conditions of African American employees and the local black community.
Chancellor Sitterson responded the following month with a 19-page, point-by-point reaction to the demands. He wrote of a desire to promote “free and frank discussion” on campus. Sitterson’s responses addressed specific issues in the demands, often pointing out that the changes requested were either partially underway, needed further elaboration, or fell outside the responsibilities of the Chancellor’s office.
People interested in learning more about the 1968 demands and the ongoing discussions they provoked can find good coverage in the Daily Tar Heel. The Chancellor’s response and the reactions of some alumni are documented in the Sitterson papers in the University Archives. The role of the Black Student Movement is documented in Black Ink, which began publication in late 1969, and the records of the Black Student Movement in University Archives.
Visit Wilson Library, or contact us for resources and suggestions for researching UNC history.
Daily Tar Heel, 12 December 1968.
The Carolina Story: A Virtual Museum of University History: Exhibit on The Black Student Movement at Carolina.
Office of Chancellor of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Joseph Carlyle Sitterson Records, 1966-1972 (collection number 40022), University Archives.
Black Student Movement Records (collection number 40400), University Archives.
In January of 1936, a first-year student exposed a cheating ring among the UNC Chapel Hill student body. Under the rules of student governance and the honor system, the Student Council took responsibility for investigating the organized cheating with the power to administer punishments as serious as permanent suspensions. The Council first met in relation to the cheating accusation on January 29th, 1936 and within a week, suspended 46 students. The large scope of the problem and decisive action taken by the Student Council called into question the efficacy and purpose of the honor code. This cheating ring even affected the Student Council President, Jack Pool, who stepped down from his position “when he indicted himself for a cheating offense committed five years ago” (Daily Tar Heel, 2/4/1936). Pool was replaced as President by Francis Fairley, who is pictured above.
At the outset of the scandal, Dean of Students Francis F. Bradshaw wrote to Dean of Administration R.B. House informing him that, “through the devotion and intelligent effort of a student group, this matter has at last been run to ground. The students are assembling what appears to be complete detailed evidence of dishonesty on the part of a considerable number of students.”
House then wrote President of the University Frank Porter Graham, stating that “As distressing as the situation is, I rejoice that the students are the ones who are clearing it up and that we seem to be in the way of clearing up a grave threat to integrity and honor in our student life.” Graham publicly responded with a pledge of honor at a first-year class assembly where he expounded that “Carolina is going to be more honorable than ever before from now on. The students are the only ones who can clean this cheating out, and they are doing it. There will be no wrist slapping. You can’t stay at the University if you cheat” (Daily Tar Heel, 2/4/1936).
The cheating scandal garnered national attention with with mixed popular opinion. The honor system was simultaneously lauded for its efficacy and transparency and derided for allowing such widespread cheating to take place. Many family members and friends of those suspended wrote to President Graham in apology or support. In one such letter, the mother of suspended student Paul Wagner said that on a trip to UNC, “the Devil took possession of him” and that her son had “been rated by the so called brain specialists as an unusually smart boy.” Mrs. Wagner concluded that she had “no one to blame but myself” and thanked the administration “for every thing you have done for my boy.” Several family members and acquaintances of former Student Council President Jack Pool also wrote to President Graham in his defense. Graham wrote to Pool’s mother, “How deeply we appreciate what Jack has done at the University as a man and as a leader. He took a brave stand here this year as president of the student body and then sacrificed himself in the cause that he was fighting for.”
By the end of the investigations, over 150 students were found to have participated in the cheating ring. Not only did this include Student Council President Jack Pool, but also members of Phi Beta Kappa and the Order of the Golden Fleece. However, many of the suspended students, including Pool, were reinstated soon after their punishment. The most common result was a failing grade and a loss of credit in the class in which a student cheated.
In the wake of the recent protests and demonstrations at the University of Missouri, many people in the UNC community are looking back on our own past at occasions where students and activists fought for change in Chapel Hill. Two pieces published today — an article in the Daily Tar Heel and an excellent blog post by graduate student Charlotte Fryar — draw comparisons between Missouri and a specific series of protests at UNC in 1992.
Students at UNC rallied throughout the spring and fall of 1992 in support of several issues, most notably the construction of a freestanding Black Cultural Center on campus. The protests drew national attention and filmmaker Spike Lee came to campus to help rally the students and support their cause. By at least one measure, the protests were a success: after repeatedly speaking out against a separate Black Cultural Center on campus, Chancellor Paul Hardin eventually endorsed a plan to build the center, and agreed to name it after former UNC faculty member Sonja Haynes Stone.
There is a lot of information about the protests and the reactions of the administration in the University Archives and other Wilson Library collections. This general guide to sources and basic timeline of the events will serve as a starting point for students and others interested in learning more about this important period in UNC history.
- The Daily Tar Heel covered all of the major protests and administrative actions related to the debate over the Black Cultural Center. Digitized copies are available on newspapers.com. Access to the digitized DTH is available without charge on campus and to anyone with a current Onyen.
- Black Ink, the newspaper of the Black Student Movement, provided extensive coverage of the protests and student reactions. Digitized copies of the paper are available through the North Carolina Digital Heritage Center.
- Regional media, especially the News and Observer in Raleigh, covered many of the student protests. The Wikipedia article on the Sonya Haynes Stone Center has an excellent list of citations to relevant newspaper articles.
- The Records of the Office of the Chancellor at UNC, Paul Hardin Records (1988-1995), include several folders related to the Black Student Movement and student protests. One of these folders, containing correspondence and clippings related to the protests, has been digitized.
- The Carolina Alumni Review, Winter 1992 issue (vol. 81 no. 4) includes a lengthy article about the protests, the long movement toward a Black Cultural Center, and a “Chronology of Racism Issues at UNC.”
24 February 1992: Students from the Black Student Movement, Campus Y, and other student activists issue several demands to Chancellor Paul Hardin: the construction of a freestanding Black Cultural Center on campus, named after Sonja Haynes Stone; and endowed faculty position named after Sonja Stone; and action by the University to improve pay and working conditions for housekeepers on campus. [Source: DTH, 2/25/1992]
17 March 1992: Hardin responds to the student demands in remarks delivered at South Building. Hardin expressed his sympathy with student requests, but said he was unable to meet any of them. He said, “I do not agree with those of you who advocate a free-standing Center.” [Sources: DTH, 3/18/1992; the full text of Hardin’s response is available in the Chancellor’s records in University Archives — digitized copy here, beginning with scan number 35]
Early Summer 1992: Four African American football players — John Bradley, Jimmy Hancock, Malcolm Marshall, and Timothy Smith — form the Black Awareness Council, a group dedicated to increasing awareness among African Americans about campus and community issues. The founders spoke about their desire to get black athletes more involved in issues of importance to other black students on campus. [Source: Black Ink, 8/31/1992]
30 August 1992: The Black Student Movement, Campus Y, and Black Awareness Council list their demands and announce a plan to bring them directly to Chancellor Hardin at his home. [Source: Records of the Office of the Chancellor; the digitized statement shows Hardin’s handwritten note, “Not possible” next to the demand for a freestanding Black Cultural Center]
3 September 1992: Around 300 students march to Chancellor Paul Hardin’s house demanding immediate action on their demands. [Sources: DTH, 9/4/1992); Black Ink, 9/16/1992]
10 September 1992: Several hundred students march to South Building to present a letter from the Black Awareness Council demanding both support and a clear plan for building a separate Black Cultural Center on campus. The students give the Chancellor a deadline of November 13. They write, “Failure to respond to this deadline will leave the people no other choice but to organize toward direct action.” The protest draws the attention of the New York Times, which resulted in an article the following day. [Source: DTH, 9/11/1992].
17 September 1992: Moved by what he has read about the student protests, filmmaker Spike Lee comes to campus to lend his support. Around 5,000 students hear him speak at the Dean Dome. Lee draws attention to the fact that African American athletes are active in leading the protests. He says, in an interview with Black Ink, “What’s important here is that the athletes are at the vanguard of this. The reason why that is important is that college sports is powered by the muscle, brawn, speed, and intelligence of the black athletes. If these schools didn’t attract black athletes through football and basketball, there could be no multimillion dollar T.V. contracts.” [Source: Black Ink, 10/5/1992].
23 September 1992: Provost Richard McCormick forms a panel to investigate and come up with a plan for an expanded Black Cultural Center on campus. [Source: DTH, 9/24/1992].
1 October 1992: An article in the Daily Tar Heel discusses the involvement of football players in the protests and addresses the prospect of players missing practices or games. Tim Smith, one of the founders of the Black Awareness Council, says, “BAC hasn’t said anything about (boycotting), so it’s not an issue.” Football coach Mack Brown is quoted as saying he has encouraged the players to be active on campus, but, “We’ve always asked them to do it as an individual and not as representatives of our football program.” [Source: DTH, 10/1/1992, p. 7]
5 October 1992: The panel votes, 10-2, in favor of a freestanding Black Cultural Center. [Source: DTH, 10/6/1992]
12 October 1992: Still awaiting a response from Chancellor Hardin, about 125 students briefly interrupt University Day festivities to advocate for the Black Cultural Center. [Source: DTH, 10/13/1992]
15 October 1992: Chancellor Hardin announces his support for a freestanding Black Cultural Center on campus: “I endorse a free-standing facility to house the center and will recommend that the proposed facility be named for Dr. Stone.” [Source: DTH, 10/16/1992]
As we find other relevant sources, we’ll update this blog post. For more information or suggestions for exploring this or other topics on UNC history, contact or visit Wilson Library.
It’s Homecoming at UNC, and this weekend brings the annual showdown against Duke for the Victory Bell. Hugh Morton attended many of these confrontations with camera in hand during his lifetime, starting with his years as a student between 1939 and 1942.
Have any identifications you can add? Please leave a comment! You may click on the images, which will take you to a full descriptive record, and you can also zoom into the images for more detail.
Have fun, and explore all the other Tar Heel and Blue Devil related images in the Hugh Morton online collection!
1940 UNC pep rally
1940 UNC cheerleaders
1940 Daily Tar Heel office
Late 1940s? Rameses with Blue Devil
1948 Charlie Justice passing
1948 Justice on teammates’ shoulders
1948 Cheerleaders with Victory Bell
1955 Duke cheerleaders at UNC-Chapel Hill football game versus Duke University at Duke Stadium
1957 UNC head coach Jim Tatum embraces suspended co-captain Dave Reed after upset win
1950s or 1960s? Duke cheerleaders with Victory Bell
1973 action photograph during UNC vs. Duke football game at Wallace Wade Stadium
In his column in The Charlotte Observer issue of Sunday, August 25, 1996, legendary sports columnist Ron Green wrote the following:
The tie, a vestige of college football’s dinosaur age, is dead, eradicated by long overdue rule changes.
RIP. Forever. In a hermetically sealed steel container. Under a heavy layer of concrete.
The fellow who said a tie was like kissing your sister gave far too much credit to a tie.
But before the 1996 season, the tie was alive and well and living on Saturday afternoons throughout college football.
During the “Golden Age” (1946-1949) of UNC football there were two of these tie games, and both made for interesting ink and airtime. Morton Collection volunteer Jack Hilliard takes a look back at one of those ties . . . sixty-seven years ago this week.
Three days after Harry Truman defeated Thomas Dewey for the presidency of the United States, The College of William and Mary’s 1947 Southern Conference champion football team rolled into Chapel Hill on Friday, November 5, 1948 as a twenty-point underdog. They weren’t given much of a chance against the undefeated, nationally third-ranked Tar Heels. Carolina was riding atop a thirteen-game winning streak, a winning streak that had started ironically against William & Mary on October 18, 1947—the only ’47 loss for W&M. Despite a defensive front line that averaged 211 pounds per man compared to Carolina’s 205, I think it’s safe to say that most of the 43,000 Tar Heel fans that jammed into Kenan Stadium on that rainy, gray, windswept Saturday afternoon thought this would be win number 14; the William & Mary team, however, had a different idea.
Before the opening kickoff, Carolina head cheerleader Norman Sper reminded one and all:
There was booing at Tennessee last week, and we hope that all of you will refrain from such unsportsmanlike conduct.
Sper was referring to a controversial play during Carolina’s 14 to 7 win in Knoxville on October 30th. Shortly before the end of the second quarter, Tennessee’s Hal Littleford returned a Charlie Justice punt 90 yards for a score, but the play was called back. Referee Walter Hoffman detected clipping when Chaddie Baker tried to block Hosea Rodgers. It seemed like all 50,000 fans were upset with the call—so much so that Knoxville Police Chief Joe Kimscy ordered special protection for the game officials when a small crowd surged out of the stands and onto the field. An action photograph from the Knoxville News–Sentinel clearly showed the infraction. UNC’s “Alumni Review” titled the picture “The Tennessee Clipper.”)
After a scoreless first quarter, William & Mary recovered a fumble on the Carolina 27 yard line about half way through the second quarter. Two line plays netted six yards; then on third down, left halfback Tommy Korczowski threw a looping lob-pass into the end zone for co-captain Lou Hoitsma who seemed to be covered by Tar Heels Bill Flamisch and Bill Maceyko. All three went up for the ball, but Hoitsma made a circus catch. The Indians—W&M’s nickname in 1949, but known today as The Tribe—led 7-0 at the half.
UNC’s special halftime guests were nine outstanding high school bands from across the state. The bands performed several maneuvers including an outline of the state and invited the crowd to join in singing “The Old North State.”
Late in the third quarter, Hosea Rodgers finally scored for the Heels on a one yard run to culminate a 15-play, 76-yard-drive. For the remainder of the third quarter and through the fourth, UNC’s Charlie Justice and W&M’s Jack Cloud tried all the tricks in the book, but defense was the name of the game on this day. Hugh Morton’s photograph of the Carolina bench near the end of the game tells the story with long faces and looks of concern. Then, with time running out and Carolina with the ball at its own 21, Billy Hayes went back to pass. He spotted Max Cooke at the 28 and let it fly, but William & Mary’s Joe Mark cut in front of Cooke and made the interception. When Hayes finally got Mark on the ground, the ball was at the Carolina 8 . . . just as the gun sounded to end the game. William & Mary’s Jack Cloud immediately ran up to referee Mr. Dandelake pleading for a time out. But, as UNC center the late Joe Neikirk, who was standing beside the referee, liked to tell the story, Dandelake said, “Son, the d— game is over.” Neikirk added “the tie wrecked our season.”
Both head coaches weighed in following the game. W&M coach R. N. (Rube) McCray said, “We were definitely not playing for a tie. We were out to win.” UNC Head Coach Carl Snavely added,” We were lucky to come out with a tie.”
So, how did William & Mary hold the number three team in the country to a 7-7 tie? They got only one first down and that was on a penalty, while the Tar Heels got 17. They completed only 2 passes for a total of 22 yards; Carolina completed 7 for 83 yards. They gained only 19 yards on the ground, the Heels got 184. Along the way, Carolina lost 3 fumbles and had 4 passes intercepted. And W&M held UNC’s great All-America Charlie Justice scoreless for the first time during Carolina’s 13-game win streak. For the answer, the headline in UNC’s The Alumni Review says it all:
Powerful W & M Defense Ends Tar Heel Streak
When the Associated Press football rankings came out on November 8th, Carolina had dropped four places to number 7 and as a number three going into the William & Mary game, they had received 36 first place votes. Following the game they got only 7.
It’s rare when one considers a tie game to be a great game, but when you check the 1949 William & Mary yearbook, Colonial Echo, you find that the editors considered the tie with Carolina to be the “highlight of the year,” and their 21-yard touchdown pass as the “greatest play of the season.” Authors Wilford Kale, Bob Moskowitz, and Charles M. Holloway, in their 1997 book, Goal to Goal: 100 Seasons of Football at William and Mary, agreed with the yearbook assessment. The yearbook editors additionally pointed out that some newspaper writers even took the W&M touchdown play a step further calling it “the play of the year in the Southern Conference.”
There are two Kenan Stadium records from this game that still stand over half-way through the 2015 season—both achieved by William & Mary’s punter Buddy Lex. On this day he punted a total of 15 times for a total 645 yards.
It was a classic game, one fit to be tied.
And as for that other “Golden Era” tie mentioned in the opening: it came on September 28, 1946, a 14 to 14 tie with another team from the state of Virginia, VPI (It’s Virginia Tech today).
Epilogue: Another Tie of Distinction
In January, 1997, I received a letter from Hugh Morton after I sent him a videotape I had made about the ‘47 Sugar Bowl 50th reunion. Here’s what he said:
“I’ve always considered myself the most loyal Charles Justice fan still around, but I’m having doubts about that. I think maybe you are, or possibly we are tied for that.”
I consider it an extremely high honor to be tied with Hugh Morton for Charlie Justice loyalty. Just to be mentioned in the same paragraph with Hugh Morton and Charlie Justice is a distinct honor.
For a number of years, student absences and instances of misconduct were recorded in ledgers by University administrators. Several of these ledgers, dating from 1838 to 1847, have survived in the Records of the Office of the Registrar (#40131) and provide an fascinating (and often entertaining) view of student life on campus in this period.
Students were frequently cited for eating, talking, sleeping, or being generally “disorderly” during class or prayers, answering for other students during roll calls, and bringing the wrong books to class. Other offenses were more unusual. We’ve rounded up a few of the most interesting from the October-November 1840 ledger below.
“Webb – Playing on the flute in study hours (not the first time)”
“Bruce – patting Hawkins on the shoulder during Rec[ication] in such a manner as to produce a laugh”
“Barnett – throwing water over the bannister at a retreating student”
“Lucas – persisting in cutting and eating sassafras”
“Battle Freshman – pouring water on Mitchell Sunday evening. Mitchell making an outrageous noise thereupon.”
“Daniel – calling out ‘snap’ as he came to Rec[itation]”
“R Tate – putting finger into his mouth, then making ugly noise on withdrawing it”
[From Volume 9, the Records of the Office of the Registrar (#40131), University Archives]
In 1950, Secretary of the Army and Director of the Psychological Strategy Board Gordon Gray became president of the UNC system. Leading the university at the height of the McCarthy era, Gray received many letters from concerned citizens and parents of students about a supposed student section of the Communist Party at the university. Technically, there was a student chapter of the Carolina District Communist Party in Chapel Hill, but it was an independent local organization. Its publications and pamphlets made their way on to campus, in part, because of the efforts of Junius Scales.
Junius Scales was a labor organizer, civil rights activist, and chair of the Communist Party for North and South Carolina. He came from a wealthy family in Greensboro, North Carolina and secretly became a member of the Communist Party when he was 19. After serving in World War II, Scales finished his Bachelor’s degree at UNC Chapel Hill and started on a Master’s degree, which he did not finish. In the early 1950s, he became more involved with the Communist Party and began distributing publications in support of the Party on the UNC campus.
In writings by Scales found in the records of President Gray, he calls on the public to support peace efforts.
“We young people the world over want peace. We look forward to a college education, and not to military service. Those of us who are students realize that knowledge is found through the free flow of ideas, not through thought control in our colleges and universities and the lies, slanders and omissions of big-money newspapers. We wish for jobs, homes and families after graduation, and w know that in order to have these things the world must have peace.”
[From “A Student Publication, Fighter For Peace, Peace Will Conquer War,” the Office of President of the University of North Carolina (System): Gordon Gray Records, #40008, University Archives]
By indicating that the publications were produced by the “Student Section of the Communist Party” and distributing the publications on campus, Scales implied that his organization was a sanctioned student organization. However, there was no official student section of the Communist Party at the university. The address listed for the organization was a post office box in Chapel Hill, and local community leaders asked that the Post Office deny Scales use of the address. However, the Post Office had no legal recourse to stop renting the post office box to Scales.
Scales had been under investigation by the FBI since 1951 when he became the Communist Party of the United States District Organizer for the South. In this position Mr. Scales visited and advised Communist Party sections in the states of North and South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and Mississippi. He was eventually arrested by the FBI in 1954 for “conspiring to advocate force and violence,” under the Smith Act. Though Scales himself had not committed an act of violence nor advocated for violence, he was charged for belonging to a party that was thought to do so. After Scales was arrested, the student section of the Carolina Communist Party ceased to exist. However, the overarching Carolina Communist Party, which consisted of the Communist Party sections in the states of North and South Carolina, continued sending out pamphlets to the students at Chapel Hill questioning the constitutionality of the Smith Act.
The Junius Irving Scales Papers are housed in the Southern Historical Collection.
Read more about freedom of speech at Carolina in the online exhibit A Right to Speak and Hear.
University Archives recently acquired records from the Department of Communication, located in Bingham Hall. The records highlighted one of the many departmental reorganizations that have shaped the university: the 1993 merger of the Department of Radio, Television, and Motion Pictures (RTVMP) and the Department of Speech Communication. The merger resulted in the Department of Communication Studies, which this month became the Department of Communication.
In November 1990, the Daily Tar Heel published a series of articles reporting student and alumni dissatisfaction with the job preparation provided by the department. This was further compounded by the department’s refusal of an equipment donation by an RTVMP alumnus on the grounds of insufficient space in Swain Hall, high maintenance costs, and onerous gift conditions. Some RTVMP students and alumni thought the refusal indicated that the department was not dedicated to providing students with technical skills needed for careers in media production.
A 1993 external review of the department included four major recommendations:
1. That the Department of Radio, Television, and Motion Pictures at UNC-Chapel Hill be disestablished;
2. That four of its faculty lines be transferred to a new Curriculum in Cultural Studies (or to some other academic unit, temporarily, until permission for a new Curriculum can be secured); at least two of these lines should be filled by persons with media interests;
3. That the remainder of its faculty lines be collected into a new sequence in Media Arts within the Department of Speech Communication;
4. That the Department of Speech Communication’s name be changed to the Department of Communication Studies.
(From the Records of the Department of Speech Communication #40455, unprocessed)
The review was poorly received by many RTVMP students and alumni as it also proposed the elimination of “radio production, broadcast management, corporate video, studio production, and broadcast journalism.” Perceived lack of support for production classes was one of the primary complaints students and alumni reported in 1990, and it had remained a sticking point among students who planned to seek media production jobs following graduation.
The university largely followed recommendations set out in the review and on August 1, 1993, merged the Department of RTVMP and Department of Speech Communication into the Department of Communication Studies. The Daily Tar Heel reported in September 1993 that despite fears that the media production program would suffer as a result of the merger, the new department allocated “$38,500 for production equipment and maintenance—$25,500 more than the RTVMP department had to work with during the last academic year.”
Now in its 22nd year, the Department of Communication still offers specialization in Media and Technology Studies and Media Production.